FINAL EXAM NOTES
The final exam will be approximately 300 points, and will be divided into roughly 250 points from weeks 6-10
and 50 points from weeks 1-5.
The following list gives you a specific description of the areas that will be
covered in the final from weeks 6 to 10 of the class, and identifies the relevant portions of the midterm exam
notes that will be covered in the final.
Some problems from Problem Sets 6-10, or slight variations on these problems, may be on the exam.
. A number of questions will be based on the concepts, explanations, and important facts presented in
lecture during weeks 6-10. Some (but not all) of these concepts, explanations, and facts are noted below.
. Know the sequence of reactions, structure of each molecule, use of ATP, NAD, FAD, NADPH, etc., and
subcellular localization (cytosol, inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, etc.) for the following:
Oxidation of saturated fatty acids such as palmitate in a typical cell starting with the formation of fatty
Acyl CoA in the cytosol, entry into the matrix via the carnitine shuttle, and ending with (for palmitate) 8 acetyl
CoA molecules in the mitochondria
(handouts 22 and 23)
. (Note: you don't need to memorize the structure of
carnitine itself--just use a box with an OH group attached to it, as I did in lecture). Know the point of entry in
electron transport of the NADH and FADH
generated in FAO and the expected ATP production from each.
You do not need to know the additional enzymatic reactions which are required for the complete oxidation of
unsaturated fatty acids, but you should know that there will be one less FADH
generated in FAO for each C =
C double bond.
You do not need to know the detailed enzymatic reactions necessary to oxidize odd chain fatty
acids, but you should know that such fatty acids are synthesized only in some marine organisms and plants, and
that sequential cycles of FAO result in propionyl CoA which is converted into succinyl CoA in three enzymatic
steps, the first
of which requires biotin and the last
Know the structure of triacylglycerol, the
enzymatic step which releases free fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipose tissue (lipase), and the form in
which free fatty acids are transported in blood to user tissues (complexed to albumin).
Ketone Body catabolism starting with b-hydroxybutyrate and ending with 2 acetyl CoA
You do not need to know ketone body biosynthesis for this exam.)
Pentose phosphate pathway: You should know that the primary function of the pentose phosphate
pathway is to produce NADPH for biosynthetic reactions such as fatty acid biosynthesis, and that the
pathway is most active in tissues with the highest rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. You should know that the
pathway also produces ribose for nucleic acid biosynthesis.
You should be able to reproduce the