The midterm exam will cover the material presented in the first 5 weeks of lecture and in problem sets 1
The midterm exam notes below give you a specific description of the major areas that will be
covered in this exam from lectures in weeks 4 & 5 and from problem sets 4 & 5. A thorough understanding of
the material in this handout should prepare you for exam questions from weeks 4 & 5. Copies of the exams
from past years can be obtained at the course website. ( Note: the second midterm in 2007 and 2008 has
problems from the material in weeks 4& 5).
examination question will deal with information
presented in the text but not in lecture, midterm exam notes, or a problem set.
Some problems from problem sets #4 & 5, or slight variations on these problems,
will be on the exam.
. Know the sequence of reactions, the structure and name of each molecule, and the use of ATP, NAD
NADH, FAD, FMN, biotin, TPP, etc., or their equivalents, for the following pathways.
You need not memorize
the reaction mechanisms or the structure of enzyme bound intermediates, except as noted below.
You also need
not memorize the name of each enzyme, but you should be able to identify the reaction if given the name of the
Citric acid cycle + pyruvate dehydrogenase
The conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate by pyruvate carboxylase.
Glycerol phosphate shuttle (glycerol P dehydrogenase in the cytosol uses cytosolic NADH to reduce
dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol P;
glycerol P then diffuses to a different glycerol P dehydrogenase
which is in the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and contains an FAD prosthetic group.
mitochondrial glycerol P dehydrogenase oxidizes glycerol P back to dihydroxyacetone phosphate with the
formation of FADH
, and then passes the electron pair from FADH
to UQ in the inner membrane.
Complex I is bypassed, only 1.5 ATPs are made per cytosolic NADH.)
You should know the role of complexes I, II, III, and IV in electron transport and the
prosthetic groups of each (i.e., Complex I: FMN and FeS; Complex II: FAD and FeS; Complex III: 2
cytochrome b, FeS, and cytochrome c
; and Complex IV: cytochromes a and a
, copper atoms CuA and CuB).
You should know the detailed order of the electron transfers from NADH to O