lecture8 - Developmental Psychology Professor: S. Shanker...

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Developmental Psychology Professor : S. Shanker TA: J. Burman L
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2 Goals in the psychology of language 1.Understand the nature of language 2.the processes involved in language development 3.the relationship b/w language and biological, cognitive, social, and emotional development 4.the relationship between language development and pre-linguistic communication 5.Help children suffering with language delays
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3 What is Language? What is the difference b/w Language and Speech Speech is not an essential property of language: not all languages are spoken (e.g. ASL) A subject can have a speech disorder – e.g., an apraxia caused by an orofacial motor problem -- without having a language disorder Must be careful to distinguish b/w comprehension abilities and production abilities Comprehension abilities often precede and may enable production abilities
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4 What is the difference b/w language and communication? Language is defined as a rule-governed system for communicating thoughts, desires, intentions Compare the following: honey-bee dance dogs barking ape calls in the wild the one-word utterances of an 11-month old child the ability to hold a conversation
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5 Language consists of five distinct sub-systems 1. Phonology : study of structure and sequencing of speech-sound systems, or phonemes A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of sound which can signal a change of meaning (e.g. bat and pat ) Be careful to distinguish b/w phonology and phonetics ; the latter studies the mechanisms involved in the perception or production of speech sounds (e.g. how a child acquires the speech sounds of her culture)
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6 2. Morphology Studies the grammatical structure of words A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning The word bank contains one morpheme; the word distasteful contains 3 morphemes: dis , taste , and ful Be careful not to confuse morphemes with syllables; e.g. the word information has 4 syllables but 3 morphemes: in , form , and ation
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7 3. Semantics, 4. Syntax and 5. Pragmatics Semantics : the study of meaning. Looks at the categories involved in the classification of meanings (e.g. poodle , dog, animal ) Syntax : the study of the grammatical organization of the words in a sentence Pragmatics : studies any aspect of language use in a communicational context Each sub-system is said to be a rule-governed system that a child must master
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2009 for the course ADMS 1000 taught by Professor Sumwaru during the Spring '09 term at York University.

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lecture8 - Developmental Psychology Professor: S. Shanker...

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