lecture7 - Developmental Psychology Professor S Shanker TA...

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Developmental Psychology Professor : S. Shanker TA: J. Burman
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2 Biological Determinism The social and economic differences between human groups -- races, classes, sexes -- arise from inherited, inborn distinctions. i.e. society is an accurate reflection of biology. :
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3 18th Century theories Monogeism all races are same species, descended from Adam environmentalists: races differ according to climates (e.g., warm climate leads to indolence) Polygenism human races are separate species, descendants from different Adams Racist view of the Great Chain of Being ( C. White) :
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4 19th Century Craniometry: Measurement of Skulls Broca: wanted to prove ‘superior’ races have bigger brains. Believed there’s a correlation b/w head size and intelligence Still see the bigger head argument in regards to male/female differences today Broca filled skulls with lead shot weighed brains after autopsies discovered small brains among very intelligent people frightening lesson in history of science to see how he ‘reinterpreted’ his data to fit his hypothesis (unconsciously?) :
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5 Alfred Binet Directory of psychology at Sorbonne Set out to measure intelligence using Broca’s ideas found no correlation b/w head size and intelligence In 1904 commissioned by Ministry of Education to identify children needing special education short problem-solving tasks, given one-on-one tasks graded in order of difficulty: Assigned an age level to each task, defined as youngest age at which a child of normal intelligence could solve that task :
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6 Binet’s Def’n of I.Q. mental age : the age associated with the last tasks which the child could solve general intelligence : subtracted mental age from chronological age intelligence quotient : subtraction method changed to dividing mental age by chronological age to give better indication of relative magnitude of disparity (i.e. a 4 year-old with a mental age of 2 is much more serious than a 14 year-old with a mental age of 12) :
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7 Why Did Binet Develop I.Q.? Children whose mental ages were significantly behind their chronological age suitable candidate for special education scale looks like 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, .09, 1.0, ,1.1,1.2. .. Any child scoring below a certain level (e.g., .75) needs special attention :
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8 Binet’s Warnings Binet repeatedly warned that this number could not be used as a general test of intelligence, or IQ Specifically designed to identify special ed children; test serves that gross function, but that’s all Binet refused to see IQ as innate. After all, whole point of program was to raise child’s intelligence The number is only an average of many performances, not an entity unto itself :
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9 Binet’s Big Fear Binet was worried that his tests would be used to rationalise
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2009 for the course PSYC 2120 taught by Professor Struthers during the Spring '08 term at York University.

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lecture7 - Developmental Psychology Professor S Shanker TA...

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