lecture6 - IMPORTANT NOTE Lecture notes on AI will not be...

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1 IMPORTANT NOTE Lecture notes on AI will not be covered in the Mid-Term But, as Jeremy explained in class, there is material from Chapter 7 in the Mid-Term Read it! Reminder: the Mid-Term covers Chapters 1-4, 7, 11
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Developmental Psychology Professor : S. Shanker TA: J. Burman
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3 Artificial Intelligence Strong AI : Can Machines Think? Weak AI: Do Thinkers Compute? Importance to psychology lies in the second question: namely, can thinking be explained computationally
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4 Alan Turing Turing was a pure mathematician at Cambridge, working on the problem of defining a recursive function In 1936 Turing redefined ‘mechanical process’ as a computational procedure: i.e., a mechanical procedure such that a ‘calculating machine’ could carry it out Weak AI arose in the 1950s based on Turing’s computational definition of ‘mechanism’
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5 Weak AI Psychologists who considered themselves to be mechanists tended to be something else. I don't know if there's a word for them. There should be -- let's say simplists. Striking examples are people like Pavlov and Watson and the whole family of people who believed in conditioning as a basis for learning, the mechanical associationists. Although on the surface they could be considered mechanists because they seem to talk more openly about the mind being a machine, their real trouble is that their image of the machine is precomputational . ( Marvin Minsky)
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6 David Hilbert and Kurt Gödel Hilbert’s Paris Lecture (1900): Hilbert’s ‘Honours Class’ Kurt Gödel’s ‘Incompleteness Theorem’ (1931) Gödel proved that it is impossible to derive every mathematical theorem in a formal calculus Gödel made this remarkable discovery using a new kind of mathematical concept, called recursive functions
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7 Turing’s Thesis Mathematicians immediately wanted to see if they could rigorously define ‘recursive functions’ Turing solved this problem in 1936. Proved that all recursive functions, or, algorithms , are Turing Machine computable: i.e. are mechanically calculable
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8 Turing’s Mathematical Thesis Suppose it were possible to transform an algorithm into binary terms (0s and 1s) It would then be possible to construct a machine that could be used to compute analogues of those functions if it used some system which could encode
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2009 for the course PSYC 2120 taught by Professor Struthers during the Spring '08 term at York University.

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lecture6 - IMPORTANT NOTE Lecture notes on AI will not be...

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