2003 - AP® Physics C: Mechanics 2003 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Physics C: Mechanics 2003 Free-Response Questions The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program®. Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities for noncommercial, face-to-face teaching purposes. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. This material may not be mass distributed, electronically or otherwise. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. These materials were produced by Educational Testing Service® (ETS®), which develops and administers the examinations of the Advanced Placement Program for the College Board. 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The College Board is committed to the principles of equity and excellence, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2003 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. AP Central is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. TABLE OF INFORMATION FOR 2003 UNITS CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS 1 unified atomic mass unit, 1 u = 1.66 ™ 10 -27 = 931 MeV/c Proton mass, PREFIXES Name Symbol meter kilogram Factor Prefix m 10 9 giga G kg 10 6 mega M 10 3 kilo k Symbol kg 2 m p = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg Neutron mass, mn = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg second s Electron mass, me = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg ampere A 10 −2 centi c Magnitude of the electron charge, e = 1.60 × 10 −19 C kelvin K 10 −3 milli m micro µ Avogadro’s number, N0 = 6.02 × 10 mol 23 −1 mol hertz Hz 10 −9 nano n 10 −12 pico p Boltzmann’s constant, k B = 1.38 × 10 −23 J / K Speed of light, c = 3.00 × 10 8 m / s newton N Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s pascal Pa = 4.14 × 10 −15 eV ⋅ s Vacuum permittivity, Coulomb’s law constant, Vacuum permeability, Magnetic constant, Universal gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity at the Earth’s surface, 1 atmosphere pressure, 0 k = 1 / 4π = 8.85 × 10 C / N⋅m 0 k = µ 0 / 4π = 10 (T ⋅ m ) / A G = 6.67 ™ 10 -11 m 3 / kg ¼ s 2 V Ω H farad −7 0 henry µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 (T ⋅ m ) / A C ohm = 9.0 × 10 N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 θ volt 9 W coulomb 2 J watt = 1.24 × 10 3 eV ⋅ nm 2 VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES joule hc = 1.99 × 10 −25 J ⋅ m −12 10 mole R = 8.31 J / ( mol ¼ K ) Universal gas constant, −6 F tesla T 45o o = 1.0 × 10 Pa tan θ 0 1 0 3 /2 3 /3 1/2 37o 3/5 degree Celsius o C 53o eV 60 o 90o 1 atm = 1.0 × 10 5 N / m 2 cos θ 30o electronvolt g = 9.8 m / s 2 sin θ 2 /2 4/5 4/5 2 /2 3/4 1 3/5 4/3 3 /2 1/2 3 1 0 ∞ 5 1 electron volt, 1 eV = 1.60 × 10 −19 J The following conventions are used in this examination. I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial. II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current). III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge. IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work done on a system. 2 ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2003 MECHANICS a = acceleration u = u 0 + at F = force 1 x = x 0 + u 0 t + at 2 f = frequency 2 h = height 2 2 u = u 0 + 2a x - x 0 I = rotational inertia Ê F = Fnet = ma J = impulse K = kinetic energy dp F= k = spring constant dt l = length J = F dt = Dp L = angular momentum p = mv m = mass N = normal force F fric ˆ mN P = power W = F dr p = momentum 1 2 r = radius or distance K = mu 2 r = position vector dW T = period P= dt t = time P=F v U = potential energy u = velocity or speed DUg = mgh W = work done on a system u 2 = w2r x = position ac = r m = coefficient of friction t=r™F q = angle t = torque Ê t = t net = Ia w = angular speed 2 2 I = r dm = Ê mr a = angular acceleration rcm = Ê mr Ê m u = rw L = r ™ p = Iw 1 K = Iw 2 2 w = w0 + at q = q 0 + w0 t + 1 at 2 2 Fs = - kx 1 Us = kx 2 2 2p 1 T= = f w m Ts = 2 p k l Tp = 2 p g Gm1m2 $ FG = r r2 Gm1m2 UG = r 0 I I I œ 5 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM q1 q 2 A = area 2 B = magnetic field r 0 C = capacitance F d = distance E= q E = electric field e = emf Q E • dA = F = force 0 I = current dV L = inductance E=− l = length dr n = number of loops of wire per qi 1 V= unit length 4 p 0 i ri P = power 1 F= 4p ∑ UE = qV = 1 4p 0 q1 q 2 r Q V k 0A C= d C p = ∑ Ci C= i 1 1 =∑ Cs i Ci dQ dt 1 1 Uc = QV = CV 2 2 2 rl R= A V = IR I= Rs = ∑ Ri i 1 1 =∑ Rp Ri i P = IV FM = qv × B B • d ø = m0 I I F = I dø × B Bs = m0 nI I fm = B • dA dfm dt dI e = −L dt 1 U L = LI 2 2 e=− 3 Q= q= R= r= t= U= V= υ= r= fm = k= charge point charge resistance distance time potential or stored energy electric potential velocity or speed resistivity magnetic flux dielectric constant ADVANCED PLACEMENT PHYSICS C EQUATIONS FOR 2003 GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY Rectangle A = bh Triangle 1 A = bh 2 Circle A = pr 2 C = 2 pr Parallelepiped V = lwh Cylinder V = pr 2 l S = 2 prl + 2 pr 2 Sphere 4 V = pr 3 3 S = 4 pr 2 Right Triangle a 2 + b2 = c2 a sin q = c cos q = area circumference volume surface area base height length width radius c a 90 q b b c tan q = A= C= V= S= b= h= l= w= r= a b CALCULUS df d f du = dx du dx 27 27 dn n -1 x = nx dx dx e = ex dx d 1 (1n x) = dx x d (sin x) = cos x dx d (cos x) = - sin x dx 1 n +1 xn dx = x , n ž -1 n +1 e x dx = e x I I I dx = 1n x x cos x dx = sin x I I sin x dx = - cos x 4 2003 AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS PHYSICS C Section II, MECHANICS Time—45 minutes 3 Questions Directions: Answer all three questions. The suggested time is about 15 minutes for answering each of the questions, which are worth 15 points each. The parts within a question may not have equal weight. Show all your work in the pink booklet in the spaces provided after each part, NOT in this green insert. Mech. 1. The 100 kg box shown above is being pulled along the x-axis by a student. The box slides across a rough surface, and its position x varies with time t according to the equation x = 0.5t 3 + 2t , where x is in meters and t is in seconds. (a) Determine the speed of the box at time t = 0. (b) Determine the following as functions of time t. i. The kinetic energy of the box ii. The net force acting on the box iii. The power being delivered to the box (c) Calculate the net work done on the box in the interval t = 0 to t = 2 s. (d) Indicate below whether the work done on the box by the student in the interval t = 0 to t = 2 s would be greater than, less than, or equal to the answer in part (c). Greater than Less than Equal to Justify your answer. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available to AP professionals at apcentral.collegeboard.com and to students and parents at www.collegeboard.com/apstudents. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 5 2003 AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Mech. 2. An ideal spring is hung from the ceiling and a pan of mass M is suspended from the end of the spring, stretching it a distance D as shown above. A piece of clay, also of mass M, is then dropped from a height H onto the pan and sticks to it. Express all algebraic answers in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. (a) Determine the speed of the clay at the instant it hits the pan. (b) Determine the speed of the pan just after the clay strikes it. (c) Determine the period of the simple harmonic motion that ensues. (d) Determine the distance the spring is stretched (from its initial unstretched length) at the moment the speed of the pan is a maximum. Justify your answer. (e) The clay is now removed from the pan and the pan is returned to equilibrium at the end of the spring. A rubber ball, also of mass M, is dropped from the same height H onto the pan, and after the collision is caught in midair before hitting anything else. Indicate below whether the period of the resulting simple harmonic motion of the pan is greater than, less than, or the same as it was in part (c). _____ Greater than _____ Less than _____ The same as Justify your answer. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available to AP professionals at apcentral.collegeboard.com and to students and parents at www.collegeboard.com/apstudents. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 6 2003 AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Mech. 3. Some physics students build a catapult, as shown above. The supporting platform is fixed firmly to the ground. The projectile, of mass 10 kg, is placed in cup A at one end of the rotating arm. A counterweight bucket B that is to be loaded with various masses greater than 10 kg is located at the other end of the arm. The arm is released from the horizontal position, shown in Figure 1, and begins rotating. There is a mechanism (not shown) that stops the arm in the vertical position, allowing the projectile to be launched with a horizontal velocity as shown in Figure 2. (a) The students load five different masses in the counterweight bucket, release the catapult, and measure the resulting distance x traveled by the 10 kg projectile, recording the following data. Mass (kg) x (m) 100 18 300 37 500 45 700 48 900 51 i. The data are plotted on the axes below. Sketch a best-fit curve for these data points. ii. Using your best-fit curve, determine the distance x traveled by the projectile if 250 kg is placed in the counterweight bucket. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available to AP professionals at apcentral.collegeboard.com and to students and parents at www.collegeboard.com/apstudents. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 7 2003 AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (b) The students assume that the mass of the rotating arm, the cup, and the counterweight bucket can be neglected. With this assumption, they develop a theoretical model for x as a function of the counterweight mass using the relationship x = u x t , where u x is the horizontal velocity of the projectile as it leaves the cup and t is the time after launch. i. How many seconds after leaving the cup will the projectile strike the ground? ii. Derive the equation that describes the gravitational potential energy of the system relative to the ground when in the position shown in Figure 1, assuming the mass in the counterweight bucket is M. iii. Derive the equation for the velocity of the projectile as it leaves the cup, as shown in Figure 2. (c) i. Complete the theoretical model by writing the relationship for x as a function of the counterweight mass using the results from (b)i and (b)iii. ii. Compare the experimental and theoretical values of x for a counterweight bucket mass of 300 kg. Offer a reason for any difference. END OF SECTION II, MECHANICS Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available to AP professionals at apcentral.collegeboard.com and to students and parents at www.collegeboard.com/apstudents. 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/05/2009 for the course PHYS 101 taught by Professor Reich during the Spring '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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