CHAPTER 5THE NORTHWEST CHANGES(p. 142-169)Essential Question How did the fur trade, European settlement, and the rise ofthe Métis nation transform life for the peoples of the North-west?
Terms to Know –1. Michif - a Metis language combing French, Ininew (Cree), English, and Anishanaabe (Ojibwe/Saulteaux)2. Red River carts - two wheeled carts drawn by oxen or horses, devel-oped in the Red River district in the early years of the 19th century, constructed entirely of wood and adapted to travel over the prairie lands of the region, became synonymous with the Metis, who used them to transport the products of the buffalo hunt3. Pemmican Proclamation - (1814) an order by Governor Miles McDon-nell that banned the export of pemmican from Red River4. Battle of Seven Oaks - (1816) a battle involving Metis people from Red River in the struggle for control of the fur trade between the HBC and NWC5. Palliser Expedition - (1857 - 1859) a British scientific exploration of Rupert’s land to determine the region’s suitability for settlement, led by John Palliser6. Hind expedition - (1857-1858) a Canadian exploration of what is to-day southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan that concluded the are that was suitable for farming. 7. Fraser Canyon War - (1858-1859) a series of conflicts between gold miners and members of the Nlaka’s pamux (Thompson) nation whose territory the gold seekers were mining.8. Reserves - public lands set aside in treaties for specific First Nations. The federal government retains ownership of reserve lands.
The Selkirk Settlement(p. 146)The 5thEarl of Selkirk, Thomas Douglas, moved by the poverty of his Scottish countrymen, planned to relocate displaced farmers in Scot-land. (What was occurring in Scotland? the enclosure rich were taking land from the poor) Lord Selkirk believed that the Red River area was ideal and chose ‘un-inhabited’land accessible to Lake Winnipeg. Lord Selkirk purchased enough shares in the HBC to be a power-ful shareholder. He then purchased 48,468 hectares of land in southernManitoba that became know as the Selkirk Concession of Assiniboia. Ig-noring the fact that a NWC fort, Fort Gibraltar, already occupied the Forks area of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers, Lord Selkirk began to draw up plans to send out Scottish settlers.In 1812, 105 recruits, along with Governor Miles Macdonnell, ar-rived. The colonists found agriculture very difficult and these early set-tlers relied heavily on the assistance of the Métis and Chief Peguis’ Saulteaux people.
The Red River area had been settled before Selkirk’s colonists ar-rived. Métis, Ininimowin (Swampy Cree), Saulteaux, French-Canadien, along with Scottish fur trade employees, were all present at Red River. The Selkirk settlers were distinct. They focused solely on farming and did not intermarry with First Nations. The largest portion of Red River’s population, Métis, participated in the fur trade and farming. Métis and First Nations peoples were wary of these new settlers. The NWC had a fort, Fort Gibraltar, at the Forks area. The NWC viewed the HBC colony as an HBC attempt to ruin their trade.