ch15 - Studying and Manipulating Genomes Chapter 15...

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Studying and Manipulating Genomes Chapter 15 Biotechnology Use of a natural biological system to produce a product or achieve an end desired by humans Plant and animal selective breeding Humans have been changing the genetics of other species for thousands of years Modern Manipulation of DNA to achieve an end Techniques work since fundamentally all organism’s DNA is the same Same sugar and base Sequences and amount of DNA varies 15.1 Recombinant DNA Researchers make recombinant DNA by combining DNA from different organisms Restriction enzymes cut DNA into pieces DNA ligase splices pieces into plasmids or other cloning vectors Recombinant DNA can be cloned by inserting it into host cells such as bacteria DNA Clones When a host cell divides, it forms huge populations of genetically identical daughter cells ( clones ) Each clone has a copy of the foreign DNA Researchers harvest cloned DNA for experiments Complementary DNA (cDNA) RNA cannot be cloned directly Reverse transcriptase (viral enzyme) converts single-stranded RNA into
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ch15 - Studying and Manipulating Genomes Chapter 15...

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