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LECTURE 6: MOTIVATION IN PRACTICE 1 Money as motivator in exchange for org. membership (fringe benefits – insurance…) . motivator if it satisfies needs, valued, tied to P Linking pay to production: wage incentives Piece rate – pay for units produced Adv: increased productivity Disadv: Lowered quality Differential opportunity Reduced cooperation Incompatible job design Restriction of productivity Linking pay to P (white collar jobs: merit pay) 2 Adv: learning theory + expectancy theory make rewards contingent on P; will enhance motivation to perform at high level Disadv: indiv may not perceive link between job performance + pay; merit pay needs to be managed properly, or: - . low discrimination . small increases (too small as motivator) . pay secrecy (invent salaries) USING PAY TO MOTIVATE TEAMWORK 3 (ex. group-level incentive plan) Profit sharing Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) Gainsharing Skill-based pay (Read Pg. 195-195 + adv and disadv.) JOB DESIGN AS MOTIVATOR 4 identify charac. which have psych. impact . core job characteristics with psych. impact . in turn, psych. states leads to outcomes relevant to worker + org. . moderators infl extent to which rel. hold true Core Job Characteristics 1. Skill variety – variety of jobs req. skills/talents 2. Task identity – complete work (beg to end) 3. Task significance – impact job has on others 4. Autonomy – freedom in scheduling, procedures 5. Job Feedback – info about work performance Job Characteristics Model (cont’d.) 5 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) MPS = skill variety + task identity + task sign x autonomy x job feedback Critical psychological states – work intrinsically motivating when perceived as meaningful, feel responsible for O, have knowledge about progress Skill variety, task identity, task significance affects meaningfulness of job Autonomy affects responsibility Feedback affects knowledge of results Job Characteristics Model 6 Moderators – intervene between job charac. + O a) Job-relevant knowledge + skills b) Growth need strength; c) Context factors Job Enrichment – design job to enhance intrinsic motivation + quality of work life. Techniques: . combining tasks . establish external client relationships . establish internal client relationships . reduce supervision/reliance on others . form work teams . make feedback direct Problems: poor diagnosis; lack of skills/desire; resistance (union/supervisor); demand for pay
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MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) 7 program to facilitate goal establish. + empl. dev. 1. superior/subord. meet to develop/agree on objectives for coming months 2. periodic meetings to monitor subord.’s progress in achieving objectives 3. appraisal meeting held to eval. extent to which agreed-on objectives have been ach. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2009 for the course MGCR MGCR-222 taught by Professor Suissa during the Winter '09 term at McGill.

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