The Spanish Civil War.docx - The Spanish Civil War The...

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The Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil war (1936-39), was a military revolt that was led by the conservative right wing Spanish military officers against the republican government of Spain. The revolt started in Spanish Morocco & gradually spread to mainland Spain. Spain had turned into a battlefield for various European ideologies during the war time. The nationalists, as the rebels were known as, received aid from Fascist Italy & Nazi Germany. The republicans, on the other hand, received aid from the Soviet Union, as well as the International brigade comprising of volunteers from Europe & the United States. Analyzing the scenario which led to the war, Spain had declared a protectorate over northern Morocco in 1912 & had resorted to use of poisonous gas to battle the Moroccan insurgents who were fighting for independence. In turn, in 1921, the Moroccans had succeeded in inflicting a shocking defeat upon the Spanish forces. In 1923, General Primo de Rivera had managed to seize power. Four years later, he set out to “modernize” Spain, ordering construction of dams, sewers, roads & prisons. He also antagonized the left by drafting a constitution in 1927 that left no ministers responsible to the Cortes (bicameral legislature of Spain) & also upset the army officers by intervening in their promotions. However, in 1930, he resigned. In 1931, the second Spanish Republic was established, which saw a coalition between the republicans & the moderate socialists. The government of Manuel Azana went on to enact a series of anti-clerical measures, imposed new taxes & passed labour reforms. During this period, strikes, land seizures by peasants &

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