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mid term study guide

mid term study guide - Mid-Term study guide Definitions1...

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Mid-Term study guide Definitions- 1. Hierarchy - social order 2. Ethnocentrism - the belief in the inherent superiority of one’s own ethnic group. 3. Cahokia – 13 th century life of the Mississippi. 700-1400 CE. In an urban cluster, 30,000 people. Housing, temples, farming. Europeans first thought they were in the ruins of an abandoned civilization, but could not believe it was the work of Indians. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. Houses of -wood and mud. CITY-STATE, SUPPORTED BY TRIBUTE AND TAXATION. 4. Monoculture - the planting practice used by the Europeans in the early colonization period of the New World along with capital production. It is the practice of growing a single crop over a wide area (ex: wheat fields, apple orchards, grape vineyards). Monoculture is beneficial because the plants have uniform growing standards, and things like maintenance and harvesting can be standardized. However, there is also a greater drain on the soil of its nutrients, making it harder to replant after about 40 years of use. 5. Bering Straits - 6. Three Sisters - refers to the crops that the Native Americans planted. Corn, Beans and squash. 7. Feudalism- The social system Europeans were using in the late middle ages. The continent was divided into hundreds of small territories, each ruled by a family of lords who claimed a disproportionate share of wealth and power. These feudal lords commanded labor service from peasants, and tribute in the form of crops. The lords were the main beneficiaries of medieval economic expansion great estates and building fortified castles. 8. Nation-state - Politically independent state formed up of people with a common identity. Became a tool of expansion, allowing for the ability to amass and control resources, centralization of power, and financing technological innovation and expansion. 9. Atlantic World - The transformation of the Atlantic in to a highway between the Mediterranean, Africa and Europe. These continents were an inland trading network that brought slaves, weapons and agricultural goods across the Atlantic. 10. Amerigo Vespucci -Explorer that sailed 1499. First to suggest that the land hit by Columbus (and himself) was a separate continent from Asia, early map labeled new continent as America after Amerigo. It stuck. Played a senior role in two voyages which explored the east coast of S. America between 1499 and 1502. 11. Bartolome de las Casas - was a 16 th century Spanish Dominican priest, and the first resident Bishop of Chiapas. As a settler in the New World he was
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galvanized by witnessing the torture and genocide of the Native Americans by the Spanish colonists. He is commemorated as a missionary in the Calendar of saints of the Evangelical Lutheran church in America on July 17. 12. Virginia Company- Refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by King James I in 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of N. America.
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