Dist.Trans. Handbook (1).pdf - Distribution Transformer Handbook T H I R D E D I T I O N Distribution Transformer Handbook ADDITIONAL PUBLICATIONS

Dist.Trans. Handbook (1).pdf - Distribution Transformer...

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Distribution Transformer Handbook T H I R D E D I T I O N
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Distribution Transformer Handbook ADDITIONAL PUBLICATIONS Alexander Publications offers a variety of books, manuals, and software for electric utilities. For details, visit or request your free copy of our latest catalog. COMMENTS If you have comments on this handbook, or suggestions how we might make it more valuable for you or your company, please call or write: Alexander Publications 177 Riverside Avenue #922 Newport Beach, California 92663 Telephone: 1-800-992-3031 or (949)642-0101 Fax: (949)646-4845 E-mail: [email protected] Third edition Fourth printing: October 2006 Each printing incorporates minor improvements. © Alexander Publications 2001. All rights reserved.
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Introduction i FOREWORD I am pleased to introduce our handy reference on distribution transformers for lineworkers. This practical handbook provides quick access to essential information for immediate use, whether in the field or in the shop. We have tried to select the most commonly required information, then present it in an easy-to-read format, to make this guide a useful and reliable reference document. Richard Alexander
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ii Distribution Transformer Handbook ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This handbook is a supplement to other excellent resources on transformers currently available. Among the materials consulted while preparing this book are: ANSI 05.1 Specifications and Dimensions for Wood Poles , ANSI C57.12.70 Terminal Markings and Connections for Distribution and Power Transformers , ANSI C57.105 Guide to Three-Phase Transformer Connections, Distribution Transformer Manual by General Electric, RUS++ by Alexander Publications, and Transformer Connections by General Electric. Product literature and application advice were provided by ABB Power T&D Company Inc., Alec Wolowidnyk, Arkansas Electric Cooperatives, BC Hydro, Cooper Power Systems, ERMCO, General Electric, Howard Industries, Northeast Utilities, Northeastern JATC, Northwest Lineman College, Puget Sound Energy, Solomon Corporation, Southern California Edison, and Tommy Edwards. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance from each of these sources. WARNINGS Energized transformers and live distribution lines present the risk of electrical shock. All work on this equipment should be performed only by qualified specialists. The connection diagrams, tables, and other data in this handbook are intended to be aids for field personnel. This material does not replace the extensive training necessary to safely work with transformers in service. This handbook describes work practices which are accepted by most utilities, but some may not apply to you. Always follow your company’s established safety procedures and work practices. NOTICE The publisher does not assume any liability with respect to the use of any information in this publication.
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Introduction iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Transformer Concepts Introduction to Distribution Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Power Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Transformer Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Transformer Taps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Transformer Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
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