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Unformatted text preview: Review Outline #2 Sociology 205 Theories covered: Consensus Theory (law enforcement, reciprocal effect), Consensus Theory- Individuals within a society agree on basic values, on what is inherently right and wrong. Acts that are wrong are considered crimes. Symbolic Interaction Theory (past experiences)- People act based on symbolic meanings they find within any given situation. We thus interact with the symbols, forming relationships around them. The goals of our interactions with one another are to create shared meaning. We develop our self-concepts through interaction with others. Differential Association Theory -(relationships)- proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior . Differential Association theory states that criminal behavior is learned behavior and learned via social interaction with others. Routine Activities (changes in informal control & neighborhood structure) - Concepts : Socialization- refer to the process of learning one’s culture and how to live within it. For the individual it provides the resources necessary for acting and participating within their society. For the society, inducting all individual members into its moral norms, attitudes, values, motives, social roles, language and symbols is the ‘means by which social and cultural continuity are attained. “Learning the norms of policing through seasoned veterans on a police squad” culture (mainstream, subculture, counterculture) Police subculture- The set of informal values which characterize the police force as a distinct community with a common identity. Mainstream- The way society does things…The popular way. Counterculture- Reaction against social norms. Norms- Discretion- In the criminal justice system, police , prosecutors , judges , and the jury are often able to exercise a degree of discretion in deciding who will be subject to criminal penalties and how they will be punished. Blue curtain- code of silence- is when a person opts to withhold what is believed to be vital or important information voluntarily or involuntarily.The code of silence is usually either kept because of threat of force, or danger to oneself, or being branded as a traitor or an outcast within the unit or organization as the experiences of the police whistleblower going native-Policing in the area where you live and do everyday activities. police officers lived in the community interacted in the community....
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