Unit Two IDs.pdf - ADVANCED\u200b \u200bPLACEMENT\u200b \u200bUNITED\u200b \u200bSTATES\u200b \u200bHISTORY IDENTIFICATIONS:\u200b \u200bUNIT\u200b \u200bTWO\u200b \u200b1754-1800 Molasses\u200b

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Unformatted text preview: ADVANCED​ ​PLACEMENT​ ​UNITED​ ​STATES​ ​HISTORY IDENTIFICATIONS:​ ​UNIT​ ​TWO​ ​1754-1800 Molasses​ ​Act,​ ​1733 British​ ​legislation​ ​that​ ​taxed​ ​all​ ​molasses,​ ​rum,​ ​and​ ​sugar​ ​that​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​imported​ ​from​ ​countries​ ​other​ ​than Britain​ ​and​ ​her​ ​colonies.​ ​The​ ​act​ ​angered​ ​the​ ​New​ ​England​ ​colonies,​ ​which​ ​imported​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​molasses​ ​from the​ ​Caribbean​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Triangular​ ​Trade.​ ​The​ ​British​ ​had​ ​difficulty​ ​enforcing​ ​the​ ​tax;​ ​most​ ​colonial merchants​ ​ignored​ ​it. John​ ​Peter​ ​Zenger​ ​trial Zenger​ ​published​ ​articles​ ​critical​ ​of​ ​British​ ​governor​ ​William​ ​Cosby.​ ​He​ ​was​ ​taken​ ​to​ ​trial,​ ​but​ ​found​ ​not​ ​guilty. The​ ​trial​ ​set​ ​a​ ​precedent​ ​for​ ​freedom​ ​of​ ​the​ ​press​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies. Treaty​ ​of​ ​Paris,​ ​1763 Treaty​ ​between​ ​Britain,​ ​France,​ ​and​ ​Spain,​ ​which​ ​ended​ ​the​ ​Seven​ ​Years​ ​War​ ​(and​ ​the​ ​French​ ​and​ ​Indian War).​ ​France​ ​lost​ ​Canada,​ ​the​ ​land​ ​east​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Mississippi,​ ​some​ ​Caribbean​ ​islands​ ​and​ ​India​ ​to​ ​Britain. France​ ​also​ ​gave​ ​New​ ​Orleans​ ​and​ ​the​ ​land​ ​west​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Mississippi​ ​to​ ​Spain​ ​to​ ​compensate​ ​it​ ​for​ ​ceding Florida​ ​to​ ​the​ ​British. Pontiac’s​ ​Rebellion,​ ​1763 An​ ​Indian​ ​uprising​ ​after​ ​the​ ​French​ ​and​ ​Indian​ ​War,​ ​led​ ​by​ ​an​ ​Ottawa​ ​chief​ ​named​ ​Pontiac.​ ​They​ ​opposed British​ ​expansion​ ​into​ ​the​ ​western​ ​Ohio​ ​Valley​ ​and​ ​began​ ​destroying​ ​British​ ​forts​ ​in​ ​the​ ​area.​ ​The​ ​attacks ended​ ​when​ ​Pontiac​ ​was​ ​killed.​ ​ ​The​ ​war​ ​was​ ​a​ ​failure​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Indians​ ​in​ ​that​ ​it​ ​did​ ​not​ ​drive​ ​away​ ​the​ ​British, but​ ​the​ ​widespread​ ​uprising​ ​prompted​ ​the​ ​British​ ​government​ ​to​ ​modify​ ​the​ ​policies​ ​that​ ​had​ ​provoked​ ​the conflict. Proclamation​ ​of​ ​1763 A​ ​proclamation​ ​from​ ​the​ ​British​ ​government​ ​which​ ​forbade​ ​British​ ​colonists​ ​from​ ​settling​ ​west​ ​of​ ​the Appalachian​ ​Mountains,​ ​and​ ​which​ ​required​ ​any​ ​settlers​ ​already​ ​living​ ​west​ ​of​ ​the​ ​mountains​ ​to​ ​move​ ​back east.​ ​ ​While​ ​the​ ​Proclamation​ ​of​ ​1763​ ​did​ ​improve​ ​England's​ ​relations​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​Country​ ​natives,​ ​it​ ​greatly upset​ ​the​ ​colonists.​ ​The​ ​whole​ ​reason​ ​they​ ​had​ ​supported​ ​the​ ​French​ ​&​ ​Indian​ ​War​ ​from​ ​1756-1763​ ​was​ ​to gain​ ​access​ ​to​ ​land​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​Country.​ ​By​ ​implementing​ ​the​ ​proclamation,​ ​England​ ​denied​ ​the​ ​colonists​ ​this opportunity.​ ​Many​ ​colonists​ ​became​ ​convinced​ ​that​ ​England​ ​did​ ​not​ ​care​ ​about​ ​nor​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​colonists' needs. Navigation​ ​Acts A​ ​series​ ​of​ ​British​ ​regulations​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​British​ ​shipping​ ​from​ ​competition​ ​which​ ​taxed​ ​goods imported​ ​by​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​from​ ​places​ ​other​ ​than​ ​Britain,​ ​or​ ​otherwise​ ​sought​ ​to​ ​control​ ​and​ ​regulate​ ​colonial trade.​ ​ ​Said​ ​that​ ​British​ ​colonies​ ​could​ ​only​ ​import​ ​goods​ ​if​ ​they​ ​were​ ​shipped​ ​on​ ​British-owned​ ​vessels​ ​and​ ​at least​ ​3/4​ ​of​ ​the​ ​ship’s​ ​crew​ ​was​ ​British.​ ​ ​Increased​ ​British-colonial​ ​trade​ ​and​ ​tax​ ​revenues.​ ​The​ ​Navigation​ ​Acts were​ ​reinstated​ ​after​ ​the​ ​French​ ​and​ ​Indian​ ​War​ ​because​ ​Britain​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​off​ ​debts​ ​incurred​ ​during​ ​the war,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​the​ ​costs​ ​of​ ​maintaining​ ​a​ ​standing​ ​army​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies. Sugar​ ​Act,​ ​1764 Part​ ​of​ ​Prime​ ​Minister​ ​Grenville's​ ​revenue​ ​program,​ ​the​ ​act​ ​replaced​ ​the​ ​Molasses​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​1733,​ ​and​ ​actually lowered​ ​the​ ​tax​ ​on​ ​sugar​ ​and​ ​molasses​ ​(which​ ​the​ ​New​ ​England​ ​colonies​ ​imported​ ​to​ ​make​ ​rum​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the triangular​ ​trade)​ ​from​ ​6​ ​cents​ ​to​ ​3​ ​cents​ ​a​ ​barrel,​ ​but​ ​for​ ​the​ ​first​ ​time​ ​adopted​ ​provisions​ ​that​ ​would​ ​insure​ ​that the​ ​tax​ ​was​ ​strictly​ ​enforced;​ ​created​ ​the​ ​vice-admiralty​ ​courts;​ ​and​ ​made​ ​it​ ​illegal​ ​for​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​goods from​ ​non-British​ ​Caribbean​ ​colonies. Stamp​ ​Act,​ ​1765 British​ ​legislation​ ​passed​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​Grenville's​ ​revenue​ ​measures​ ​which​ ​required​ ​that​ ​all​ ​legal​ ​or​ ​official documents​ ​used​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​wills,​ ​deeds​ ​and​ ​contracts,​ ​had​ ​to​ ​be​ ​written​ ​on​ ​special,​ ​stamped British​ ​paper.​ ​It​ ​was​ ​so​ ​unpopular​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​that​ ​it​ ​caused​ ​riots,​ ​and​ ​most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​stamped​ ​paper​ ​sent​ ​to the​ ​colonies​ ​from​ ​Britain​ ​was​ ​burned​ ​by​ ​angry​ ​mobs.​ ​Because​ ​of​ ​this​ ​opposition,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​decline​ ​in​ ​British imports​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​the​ ​non-​ ​importation​ ​movement,​ ​London​ ​merchants​ ​convinced​ ​Parliament​ ​to​ ​repeal​ ​the Stamp​ ​Act​ ​in​ ​1766. Quartering​ ​Act,​ ​1765 The​ ​Grenville​ ​government​ ​built​ ​up​ ​British​ ​troop​ ​strength​ ​in​ ​colonial​ ​North​ ​America​ ​at​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​French​ ​and Indian​ ​War​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​against​ ​threats​ ​posed​ ​by​ ​remaining​ ​Frenchmen​ ​and​ ​Indians.​ ​ ​In​ ​March​ ​1765, Parliament​ ​passed​ ​the​ ​Quartering​ ​Act​ ​to​ ​address​ ​the​ ​practical​ ​concerns​ ​of​ ​such​ ​a​ ​troop​ ​deployment.​ ​Under​ ​the terms​ ​of​ ​this​ ​legislation,​ ​each​ ​colonial​ ​assembly​ ​was​ ​directed​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​for​ ​the​ ​basic​ ​needs​ ​of​ ​soldiers stationed​ ​within​ ​its​ ​borders.​ ​Specified​ ​items​ ​included​ ​bedding,​ ​cooking​ ​utensils,​ ​firewood,​ ​beer​ ​or​ ​cider​ ​and candles.​ ​This​ ​law​ ​was​ ​expanded​ ​in​ ​1766​ ​and​ ​required​ ​the​ ​assemblies​ ​to​ ​billet​ ​soldiers​ ​in​ ​taverns​ ​and unoccupied​ ​houses.​ ​ ​Repealed​ ​in​ ​1770. Sons​ ​of​ ​Liberty A​ ​radical​ ​political​ ​organization​ ​for​ ​colonial​ ​independence​ ​which​ ​formed​ ​in​ ​1765​ ​after​ ​the​ ​passage​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Stamp Act.​ ​They​ ​incited​ ​riots​ ​and​ ​burned​ ​the​ ​customs​ ​houses​ ​where​ ​the​ ​stamped​ ​British​ ​paper​ ​was​ ​kept.​ ​After​ ​the repeal​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act,​ ​many​ ​of​ ​the​ ​local​ ​chapters​ ​formed​ ​the​ ​Committees​ ​of​ ​Correspondence​ ​which continued​ ​to​ ​promote​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​British​ ​policies​ ​towards​ ​the​ ​colonies.​ ​The​ ​Sons​ ​leaders​ ​included​ ​Samuel Adams​ ​and​ ​Paul​ ​Revere. Stamp​ ​Act​ ​Congress,​ ​1765 Twenty-seven​ ​delegates​ ​from​ ​9​ ​colonies​ ​met​ ​from​ ​October​ ​7-24,​ ​1765,​ ​and​ ​drew​ ​up​ ​a​ ​list​ ​of​ ​declarations​ ​and petitions​ ​against​ ​the​ ​new​ ​taxes​ ​imposed​ ​on​ ​the​ ​colonies. Patrick​ ​Henry​ ​(1736-1799) An​ ​American​ ​orator​ ​and​ ​member​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Virginia​ ​House​ ​of​ ​Burgesses​ ​who​ ​gave​ ​speeches​ ​against​ ​the​ ​British government​ ​and​ ​its​ ​policies​ ​urging​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​for​ ​independence.​ ​In​ ​connection​ ​with​ ​a​ ​petition​ ​to declare​ ​a​ ​"state​ ​of​ ​defense"​ ​in​ ​Virginia​ ​in​ ​1775,​ ​he​ ​gave​ ​his​ ​most​ ​famous​ ​speech​ ​which​ ​ends​ ​with​ ​the​ ​words, "Give​ ​me​ ​liberty​ ​or​ ​give​ ​me​ ​death."​ ​Henry​ ​served​ ​as​ ​Governor​ ​of​ ​Virginia​ ​from​ ​1776-1779​ ​and​ ​1784-1786,​ ​and was​ ​instrumental​ ​in​ ​causing​ ​the​ ​Bill​ ​of​ ​Rights​ ​to​ ​be​ ​adopted​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​Constitution. Declaratory​ ​Act,​ ​1766 Passed​ ​at​ ​the​ ​same​ ​time​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act​ ​was​ ​repealed,​ ​the​ ​Act​ ​declared​ ​that​ ​Parliament​ ​had​ ​the​ ​power​ ​to tax​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​both​ ​internally​ ​and​ ​externally,​ ​and​ ​had​ ​absolute​ ​power​ ​over​ ​the​ ​colonial​ ​legislatures. Townshend​ ​Acts,​ ​reaction Another​ ​series​ ​of​ ​revenue​ ​measures,​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​Townshend​ ​as​ ​Chancellor​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Exchequer​ ​in​ ​1767,​ ​they taxed​ ​quasi-luxury​ ​items​ ​imported​ ​into​ ​the​ ​colonies,​ ​including​ ​paper,​ ​lead,​ ​tea,​ ​and​ ​paint.​ ​The​ ​colonial​ ​reaction was​ ​outrage​ ​and​ ​they​ ​instituted​ ​another​ ​movement​ ​to​ ​stop​ ​importing​ ​British​ ​goods. John​ ​Dickinson Drafted​ ​a​ ​declaration​ ​of​ ​colonial​ ​rights​ ​and​ ​grievances,​ ​and​ ​also​ ​wrote​ ​the​ ​series​ ​of​ ​"Letters​ ​from​ ​a​ ​Farmer​ ​in Pennsylvania"​ ​in​ ​1767​ ​to​ ​protest​ ​the​ ​Townshend​ ​Acts.​ ​Although​ ​an​ ​outspoken​ ​critic​ ​of​ ​British​ ​policies​ ​towards the​ ​colonies,​ ​Dickinson​ ​opposed​ ​the​ ​Revolution,​ ​and,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​delegate​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​in​ ​1776, refused​ ​to​ ​sign​ ​the​ ​Declaration​ ​of​ ​Independence. Sam​ ​Adams​ ​(1722-1803) A​ ​Massachusetts​ ​politician​ ​who​ ​was​ ​a​ ​radical​ ​fighter​ ​for​ ​colonial​ ​independence.​ ​ ​Helped​ ​organize​ ​the​ ​Sons​ ​of Liberty​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Non-Importation​ ​Commission,​ ​which​ ​protested​ ​the​ ​Townshend​ ​Acts,​ ​and​ ​is​ ​believed​ ​to​ ​have led the​ ​Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party.​ ​ ​ ​He​ ​served​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​throughout​ ​the​ ​Revolution,​ ​and​ ​served​ ​as Governor​ ​of​ ​Massachusetts​ ​from​ ​1794-1797. Committees​ ​of​ ​Correspondence These​ ​started​ ​as​ ​groups​ ​of​ ​private​ ​citizens​ ​in​ ​Massachusetts,​ ​Rhode​ ​Island​ ​and​ ​New​ ​York​ ​who,​ ​in​ ​1763,​ ​began circulating​ ​information​ ​about​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​British​ ​trade​ ​measures.​ ​The​ ​first​ ​government-organized​ ​committee appeared​ ​in​ ​Massachusetts​ ​in​ ​1764.​ ​Other​ ​colonies​ ​created​ ​their​ ​own​ ​committees​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​exchange information​ ​and​ ​organize​ ​protests​ ​to​ ​British​ ​trade​ ​regulations.​ ​The​ ​Committees​ ​became​ ​particularly​ ​active following​ ​the​ ​Gaspee​ ​Incident. Boston​ ​Massacre,​ ​1770 The​ ​Massacre​ ​was​ ​the​ ​1770,​ ​pre-Revolutionary​ ​incident​ ​growing​ ​out​ ​of​ ​the​ ​anger​ ​against​ ​the​ ​British​ ​troops sent​ ​to​ ​Boston​ ​to​ ​maintain​ ​order​ ​and​ ​to​ ​enforce​ ​the​ ​Townshend​ ​Acts.​ ​ ​The​ ​troops,​ ​constantly​ ​tormented​ ​by irresponsible​ ​gangs,​ ​finally​ ​on​ ​March​ ​5,​ ​1770,​ ​fired​ ​into​ ​a​ ​rioting​ ​crowd​ ​and​ ​killed​ ​five​ ​men:​ ​three​ ​on​ ​the​ ​spot, two​ ​of​ ​wounds​ ​later.​ ​ ​The​ ​funeral​ ​of​ ​the​ ​victims​ ​was​ ​the​ ​occasion​ ​for​ ​a​ ​great​ ​patriot​ ​demonstration.​ ​ ​The​ ​British captain,​ ​Thomas​ ​Preston,​ ​and​ ​his​ ​men​ ​were​ ​tried​ ​for​ ​murder,​ ​with​ ​Robert​ ​Treat​ ​Paine​ ​as​ ​prosecutor,​ ​John Adams​ ​and​ ​Josiah​ ​Quincy​ ​as​ ​lawyers​ ​for​ ​the​ ​defense.​ ​ ​Preston​ ​and​ ​six​ ​of​ ​his​ ​men​ ​were​ ​acquitted;​ ​two​ ​others were​ ​found​ ​guilty​ ​of​ ​manslaughter,​ ​punished,​ ​and​ ​discharged​ ​from​ ​the​ ​army. Crispus​ ​Attucks​ ​(1723-1770) He​ ​was​ ​an​ ​African​ ​American​ ​and​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​colonials​ ​involved​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Massacre,​ ​and​ ​when​ ​the​ ​shooting started,​ ​he​ ​was​ ​the​ ​first​ ​to​ ​die.​ ​He​ ​became​ ​a​ ​martyr. John​ ​Adams A​ ​Massachusetts​ ​attorney​ ​and​ ​politician​ ​who​ ​was​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​believer​ ​in​ ​colonial​ ​independence.​ ​He​ ​argued against​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act​ ​and​ ​was​ ​involved​ ​in​ ​various​ ​patriot​ ​groups.​ ​As​ ​a​ ​delegate​ ​from​ ​Massachusetts,​ he​ ​urged the​ ​Second​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​to​ ​declare​ ​independence.​ ​He​ ​helped​ ​draft​ ​and​ ​pass​ ​the​ ​Declaration​ ​of Independence.​ ​Adams​ ​later​ ​served​ ​as​ ​the​ ​second​ ​President​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States. Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party,​ ​1773 British​ ​ships​ ​carrying​ ​tea​ ​sailed​ ​into​ ​Boston​ ​Harbor​ ​and​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​leave​ ​until​ ​the​ ​colonials​ ​took​ ​their​ ​tea. Boston​ ​was​ ​boycotting​ ​the​ ​tea​ ​in​ ​protest​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Tea​ ​Act​ ​and​ ​would​ ​not​ ​let​ ​the​ ​ships​ ​bring​ ​the​ ​tea​ ​ashore. Finally,​ ​on​ ​the​ ​night​ ​of​ ​December​ ​16,​ ​1773,​ ​colonists​ ​disguised​ ​as​ ​Indians​ ​boarded​ ​the​ ​ships​ ​and​ ​threw​ ​the​ ​tea overboard.​ ​They​ ​did​ ​so​ ​because​ ​they​ ​were​ ​afraid​ ​that​ ​Governor​ ​Hutchinson​ ​would​ ​secretly​ ​unload​ ​the​ ​tea because​ ​he​ ​owned​ ​a​ ​share​ ​in​ ​the​ ​cargo. Coercive​ ​Acts​ ​/​ ​Intolerable​ ​Acts​ ​/​ ​Repressive​ ​Acts All​ ​of​ ​these​ ​names​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​the​ ​same​ ​acts,​ ​passed​ ​in​ ​1774​ ​in​ ​response​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party,​ ​and​ ​which included​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Port​ ​Act,​ ​which​ ​shut​ ​down​ ​Boston​ ​Harbor;​ ​the​ ​Massachusetts​ ​Government​ ​Act,​ ​which disbanded​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Assembly​ ​(but​ ​it​ ​soon​ ​reinstated​ ​itself);​ ​the​ ​Quartering​ ​Act,​ ​which​ ​required​ ​the​ ​colony​ ​to provide​ ​provisions​ ​for​ ​British​ ​soldiers;​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Administration​ ​of​ ​Justice​ ​Act,​ ​which​ ​removed​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of colonial​ ​courts​ ​to​ ​arrest​ ​royal​ ​officers. Quebec​ ​Act,​ ​1774 The​ ​Quebec​ ​Act,​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​Parliament,​ ​alarmed​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​because​ ​it​ ​nullified​ ​many​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Western​ ​claims of​ ​the​ ​coast​ ​colonies​ ​by​ ​extending​ ​the​ ​boundaries​ ​of​ ​the​ ​province​ ​of​ ​Quebec​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​River​ ​on​ ​the​ ​south and​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Mississippi​ ​River​ ​on​ ​the​ ​west.​ ​ ​The​ ​concessions​ ​in​ ​favor​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Roman​ ​Catholic​ ​Church​ ​also​ ​roused much​ ​resentment​ ​among​ ​Protestants​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Thirteen​ ​Colonies​ ​as​ ​some​ ​colonials​ ​took​ ​it​ ​as​ ​a​ ​sign​ ​that​ ​Britain was​ ​planning​ ​to​ ​impose​ ​Catholicism​ ​upon​ ​the​ ​colonies. First​ ​Continental​ ​Congress,​ ​1774 The​ ​First​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​met​ ​to​ ​discuss​ ​their​ ​concerns​ ​over​ ​Parliament's​ ​dissolutions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​New​ ​York (for​ ​refusing​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​to​ ​quarter​ ​troops),​ ​Massachusetts​ ​(for​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party),​ ​and​ ​Virginia​ ​Assemblies.​ ​The First​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​rejected​ ​the​ ​plan​ ​for​ ​a​ ​unified​ ​colonial​ ​government,​ ​stated​ ​grievances​ ​against​ ​the crown​ ​called​ ​the​ ​Declaration​ ​of​ ​Rights,​ ​resolved​ ​to​ ​prepare​ ​militias,​ ​and​ ​created​ ​the​ ​Continental​ ​Association​ ​to enforce​ ​a​ ​new​ ​non-importation​ ​agreement​ ​through​ ​Committees​ ​of​ ​Vigilance.​ ​In​ ​response,​ ​in​ ​February,​ ​1775, Parliament​ ​declared​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​be​ ​in​ ​rebellion. Lexington​ ​and​ ​Concord,​ ​1775 The​ ​first​ ​military​ ​engagements​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Revolution,​ ​fought​ ​on​ ​April​ ​19,​ ​1775​ ​within​ ​the​ ​towns​ ​of​ ​Lexington​ ​and Concord​ ​near​ ​Boston.​ ​The​ ​battles​ ​marked​ ​the​ ​outbreak​ ​of​ ​open​ ​armed​ ​conflict​ ​between​ ​Britain​ ​and​ ​its​ ​thirteen colonies​ ​in​ ​North​ ​America.​ ​700​ ​British​ ​Army​ ​regulars,​ ​were​ ​ordered​ ​to​ ​capture​ ​and​ ​destroy​ ​military​ ​supplies that​ ​were​ ​reportedly​ ​stored​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Massachusetts​ ​militia​ ​at​ ​Concord.​ ​The​ ​first​ ​shots​ ​were​ ​fired​ ​just​ ​as​ ​the​ ​sun was​ ​rising​ ​at​ ​Lexington.​ ​The​ ​militia​ ​was​ ​outnumbered​ ​and​ ​fell​ ​back.​ ​Other​ ​British​ ​colonists,​ ​hours​ ​later​ ​at​ ​the North​ ​Bridge​ ​in​ ​Concord,​ ​fought​ ​and​ ​defeated​ ​three​ ​companies​ ​of​ ​the​ ​king's​ ​troops.​ ​The​ ​outnumbered​ ​soldiers of​ ​the​ ​British​ ​Army​ ​fell​ ​back​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Minutemen​ ​after​ ​a​ ​pitched​ ​battle​ ​in​ ​open​ ​territory.​ ​ ​More​ ​Minutemen arrived​ ​soon​ ​thereafter​ ​and​ ​inflicted​ ​heavy​ ​damage​ ​on​ ​the​ ​British​ ​regulars​ ​as​ ​they​ ​marched​ ​back​ ​towards Boston.​ ​The​ ​occupation​ ​of​ ​surrounding​ ​areas​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Massachusetts​ ​Militia​ ​marked​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Siege of​ ​Boston. Olive​ ​Branch​ ​Petition On​ ​July​ ​8,​ ​1775,​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​made​ ​a​ ​final​ ​offer​ ​of​ ​peace​ ​to​ ​Britain,​ ​agreeing​ ​to​ ​be​ ​loyal​ ​to​ ​the​ ​British government​ ​if​ ​it​ ​addressed​ ​their​ ​grievances​ ​(repealed​ ​the​ ​Coercive​ ​Acts,​ ​ended​ ​the​ ​taxation​ ​without representation​ ​policies).​ ​It​ ​was​ ​rejected​ ​by​ ​Parliament,​ ​which​ ​in​ ​December​ ​1775​ ​passed​ ​the​ ​American Prohibitory​ ​Act​ ​forbidding​ ​all​ ​further​ ​trade​ ​with​ ​the​ ​colonies. Thomas​ ​Paine:​ ​Common​ ​Sense A​ ​British​ ​citizen,​ ​he​ ​wrote​ ​Common​ ​Sense,​ ​published​ ​on​ ​January​ ​1,​ ​1776,​ ​to​ ​encourage​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​seek independence.​ ​It​ ​spoke​ ​out​ ​against​ ​the​ ​unfair​ ​treatment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​by​ ​the​ ​British​ ​government​ ​and​ ​was instrumental​ ​in​ ​turning​ ​public​ ​opinion​ ​in​ ​favor​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Revolution. John​ ​Locke,​ ​Second​ ​Treatise​ ​of​ ​Government He​ ​wrote​ ​that​ ​all​ ​human​ ​beings​ ​have​ ​a​ ​right​ ​to​ ​life,​ ​liberty,​ ​and​ ​property​ ​and​ ​that​ ​governments​ ​exist​ ​to​ ​protect those​ ​rights.​ ​He​ ​rejected​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Divine​ ​Right​ ​of​ ​the​ ​monarchy,​ ​and​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​government​ ​was based​ ​upon​ ​a​ ​"social​ ​contract" ​that​ ​existed​ ​between​ ​a​ ​government​ ​and​ ​its​ ​people.​ ​If​ ​the​ ​government​ ​failed​ ​to uphold​ ​its​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​contract​ ​by​ ​protecting​ ​those​ ​rights,​ ​the​ ​people​ ​could​ ​rebel​ ​and​ ​institute​ ​a​ ​new government. Declaration​ ​of​ ​Independence,​ ​1776 An​ ​act​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Second​ ​Continental​ ​Congress,​ ​adopted​ ​on​ ​July​ ​4,​ ​1776​ ​which​ ​declared​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Thirteen​ ​British Colonies​ ​in​ ​North​ ​America​ ​were​ ​"Free​ ​and​ ​Independent​ ​States"​ ​and​ ​that​ ​"all​ ​political​ ​connection​ ​between​ ​them and​ ​the​ ​State​ ​of​ ​Great​ ​Britain”​ ​was​ ​dissolved.​ ​The​ ​document,​ ​explained​ ​the​ ​justifications​ ​for​ ​separation​ ​from the​ ​British​ ​crown. Battle​ ​of​ ​Saratoga,​ ​1777 A​ ​decisive​ ​American​ ​victory​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​the​ ​surrender​ ​of​ ​an​ ​entire​ ​British​ ​army​ ​of​ ​9,000​ ​men​ ​invading​ ​New York from​ ​Canada.​ ​British​ ​General​ ​John​ ​Burgoyne​ ​surrendered​ ​his​ ​entire​ ​army​ ​after​ ​being​ ​surrounded​ ​by​ ​much larger​ ​American​ ​militia​ ​forces.​ ​The​ ​capture​ ​of​ ​an​ ​entire​ ​British​ ​army​ ​secured​ ​the​ ​northern​ ​American​ ​states​ ​from further​ ​attacks​ ​out​ ​of​ ​Canada​ ​and​ ​prevented​ ​New​ ​England​ ​from​ ​being​ ​isolated.​ ​A​ ​major​ ​result​ ​was​ ​that​ ​France entered​ ​the​ ​conflict​ ​on​ ​behalf​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Americans,​ ​thus​ ​dramatically​ ​improving​ ​the​ ​Americans'​ ​chances​ ​in​ ​the​ ​war. The​ ​battle​ ​of​ ​Saratoga​ ​is​ ​commonly​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​the​ ​turning​ ​point​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Revolution. Battle​ ​of​ ​Cowpens,​ ​1781 An​ ​overwhelming​ ​victory​ ​by​ ​American​ ​Revolutionary​ ​forces​ ​under​ ​Brigadier​ ​General​ ​Daniel​ ​Morgan,​ ​in​ ​the Southern​ ​campaign​ ​of​ ​the​ ​American​ ​Revolutionary​ ​War.​ ​It​ ​was​ ​a​ ​turning​ ​point​ ​in​ ​the​ ​reconquest​ ​of​ ​South Carolina​ ​from​ ​the​ ​British,​ ​part​ ​of​ ​a​ ​chain​ ​of​ ​events​ ​leading​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Patriot​ ​victory​ ​at​ ​Yorktown. Battle​ ​of​ ​Yorktown,​ ​1781 Was​ ​a​ ​decisive​ ​victory​ ​by​ ​a​ ​combined​ ​assault​ ​of​ ​American​ ​forces​ ​led​ ​by​ ​General​ ​George​ ​Washington​ ​and French​ ​forces​ ​led​ ​by​ ​General​ ​Comte​ ​de​ ​Rochambeau​ ​over​ ​a​ ​British​ ​Army​ ​commanded​ ​by​ ​General​ ​Lord Cornwallis.​ ​It​ ​proved​ ​to​ ​be​ ​the​ ​last​ ​major​ ​land​ ​battle​ ​of​ ​the​ ​American​ ​Revolutionary​ ​War,​ ​as​ ​the​ ​surrender​ ​of Cornwallis’s​ ​army​ ​prompted​ ​the​ ​British​ ​government​ ​to​ ​eventually​ ​negotiate​ ​an​ ​end​ ​to​ ​the​ ​conflict. Treaty​ ​of​ ​Paris,​ ​1783 This​ ​treaty​ ​ended​ ​the​ ​Revolutionary​ ​War,​ ​recognized​ ​the​ ​independence​ ​of​ ​the​ ​American​ ​colonies,​ ​and​ ​granted the​ ​colonies​ ​the​ ​territory​ ​from​ ​the​ ​southern​ ​border​ ​of​ ​Canada​ ​to​ ​the ​northern​ ​border​ ​of​ ​Florida,​ ​and​ ​from​ ​the Atlantic​ ​coast​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Mississippi​ ​River. Articles​ ​of​ ​Confederation:​ ​powers,​ ​weaknesses,​ ​successes The​ ​Articles​ ​of​ ​Confederation​ ​delegated​ ​most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​powers​ ​(the​ ​power​ ​to​ ​tax,​ ​to​ ​regulate​ ​trade,​ ...
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