Nur 0003 Lab 3 - Blood Goals for This Week 1. Briefly review the basic components of blood and their associated percentages 2. Go over the procedures for doing blood type, making a blood smear, doing a differential count, and hematocrit 3. Allow each student to do their own blood typing or use the synthetic blood to do blood typing. 4. Allow each student to do a blood smear of their own blood or use prepared smears to do WBC counts. I. Blood Cells A. Unformed Elements 1. Plasma Plasma is about 55% of blood by volume Composed mainly of proteins dissolved in serum. Plasma is about 92% H2O and 8% proteins and others. The important proteins are albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen. Albumin - (60%) - maintains osmotic press. In capillaries. Globulin - (36%) - transport binding proteins, and some types of antibodies. Fibrinogen - (4%) - forming blood clots B. Formed Elements 1. Erythrocytes (RBC) Formed elements make up approximately 45% of blood by volume. 4-6 mill/µL (4-5 for women, 5-6 for men) Small biconcave discs that are anucleated. They are literally bags full of hemoglobin molecules that function to carry oxygen throughout the circulatory system to the tissues. They are formed by hemopoeisis in the red bone marrow and last about 120 days before being recycled. 2. Platelets 150,000 - 400,000/µL. Fragments of megakaryocytes. Essential for proper clotting at the site of a wound. Last 5-9 days in circulation. 3. Leukocytes (WBC) Are truly cells, they are less than 1% of blood by volume. 5,000-10,000/µL Hormones and other stressors can stimulate their production in bone marrow (known as leukopoeisis). Once produced many of them move out of the blood vessels in a process known as diapedesis (amoeboid movement) and eventually to the site of an immune response. 1
Nur 0003 C. Types of Leukocytes 1. Granulocytes - multi-lobed nuclei, granules in cytoplasm Neutrophils - most abundant WBC, 50-70%, nucleus has between 3-5 lobes. Eosinophils - 1-4% of WBC, nucleus often bi-lobed or figure 8 shaped. Cytoplasm dyes red in presence of the dye eosin. Basophils - <1% of WBC. Large U or S shaped nucleus stains blue in presence of basic dyes. Can release histamine and heparin. 2. Agranulocytes - More abundant in lymphoid tissue than in blood. They contain no granules in their cytoplasm, and their nuclei are less abnormal in shape. Lymphocytes - 20-30% of WBC, smallest WBC. Nucleus is generally spherical. T-cells do contact killing B-cells produce antibodies Monocytes - 3-8% of WBC. Largest of WBC. Nucleus is generally kidney shaped. It is a voracious phagocyte that acts in long-term cleanup of chronic infections (i.e. mononucleosis). Note: N ever L et M onkeys E at B ananas (most abundant to least) 3. Clinical Significance Neutrophils - Increase in number during acute bacterial infections such as appendicitis.
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- Fall '16
- WBC, ABO blood group system