Nur 0013Spring 2014Chapter 17: BloodLearning Objectives1.Know the composition of bloodMake sure you know the normal percentages and ranges for eachKnow what other substances are in each portion of bloodplasma = plasma proteins, nutrients, gases.2.Know the structure and function of a RBC, and the structure of the hemoglobin molecule. 3.Know the types of white blood cells, what their normal percentages are and what an increase of one type would mean clinically.4.Be sure to go over the production of formed elements.What is a reticulocyte? – What is the significance of seeing them in circulation?What causes a clot to form?Know the effects of thrombin and fibrin on proper clot formation. Does it matter if you use the extrinsic or intrinsic clotting pathway?6.Know how the ABO and Rh blood types are determined.What are the hazards of cross-matching blood types?What is the danger to a newborn of the Rh factor?7.Clinical significance of Blood testsRBC/WBC counts – know the normal ranges and averages for eachHematocrit – what does it test, what are the normal percentages?1
Nur 0013Spring 2014I.Components of BloodA.General Information8% of body weight.5-6L in adult males, 4-5L in adult femalesBright red – Oxygen richDark red – Oxygen poorFunctions Distribution – oxygen delivery, waste transport, hormonesRegulation – body temp, pH, fluid volumeProtection – preventing blood loss, immune fxns.B.Unformed vs. Formed Elements1.Unformed – Plasma2.Formed – RBC, WBC, and Platelets.II.Unformed ElementsA.Plasma= 55% of blood by volumeComposed mainly of proteins dissolved in serumPlasma is about 92% H2O and 8% proteinsThe important proteins are albumins, globulins, fibrinogen1.Albumins-(~60%) - maintain osmotic pressure in capillaries.2.Globulins- (~36%) - transport binding proteins, and some antibodies3.Fibrinogen– (~4%) - forming blood clotsOthers - Glucose, ions, and gasesIII.Formed Elements - RBCA.Erythrocytes (RBC)45% of blood by volumeNot technically cells - 4-6 mill/µLSmall biconcave discs that are anucleated, which allows for increased surface areafor gas exchange.