The Philippines in Maritime Asia to the Fourteenth Century.docx - The Philippines in Maritime Asia to the Fourteenth Century EARLY SOUTHEAST ASIAN

The Philippines in Maritime Asia to the Fourteenth Century.docx

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The Philippines in Maritime Asia to the Fourteenth Century EARLY SOUTHEAST ASIAN POLITIES Localities and Leadership Most languages in the maritime region belong to the Austronesian family - Stems from possible dispersal of people from Southern China 4,000 years ago Cognatic kinship - Descent is traced through both male and female lines - Fictive kinship: creates ritual brothers, godmothers, and godfathers - Political alliances were confirmed through marriages - Kinship was the way most social ties were expressed, “the idiom of social organization” Animistic religion - Seeing and worshipping divinity in the surrounding environment which had the power to give life (e.g. a good harvest, a successful hunt) or bring harm (death in childbirth, a shipwreck) - Ancestor worship was a spiritual expression of kinship ties Patchwork of human settlements - Central mountain ranges, abundant natural resources but land travel was difficult, leading to low population density - Local mindset persisted – people felt strongly attached to their own locality - Every center was a center in its own right as far as its inhabitants were concerned, and it was surrounded by its own groups of neighbors. Oliver Wolters What type of state arose in these conditions? Weberian concept: an early state would emerge from and exist above a growing population engaging in trade and other economic activities Chinese sources: features dynastic succession within defined territorial boundaries Early river-based settlements Rivers were logical settlement sites because of sources of water and food, channels for transportation Upriver settlements needed salt and protein and they exchanged rice and forest products that coastal dwellers needed Settlements had the potential to control the entry of upriver goods in the trading system Datu - Chief or big man in anthropological studies, Charismatic leader in Weberian political scholarship, Man of prowess in Southeast Asia - Exhibited achievement in warfare and trade Women were more likely to be ritual specialists with the power to access and influence the spirits existing in nature Male-centered political and cultural hierarchies, but origin myths highlight the complementarity of male and female roles Gender regimes: attribution of roles as part of wider social order Each locality felt itself to be central Datu was in constant competition with his counterparts, requiting diplomatic skills Trade via waterways, busy harbors: - As the biggest local merchant , he directly profited from the trade - As the one who maintained the port providing safety, facilities, and provisions to traders – he collected harbor fees - As the political leader , he demanded tribute from visiting merchants and enforced authority through armed force (to deter piracy and prevent foreign ships from bypassing his port to trade in competitors’ ports) Cosmopolitan entrepot: a center for trade and transshipment of goods Polities were networks of personal loyalties and marriage
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