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Psych Reading Notes Chapter 11

Psych Reading Notes Chapter 11 - PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL...

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PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE Chapter Eleven- Reading Notes Zygote- one celled organism formed by the union of sperm and egg, conception Prenatal period- conception until birth, nine months of pregnancy Prenatal period is divided into three phases: 1. germinal stage (1 st two weeks)- within first 36 hours of conception rapid cell division, on 17 th day embryo moves up uterine cavity to implant itself on uterine wall (process takes about a week but far from auto, 20% pregs end here without the women even knowing she was preg. Placenta forms (structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from mothers blood stream, also gets rid of waste 2. embryonic stage (2 weeks- 2months)-organs and bodily systems begin to form, cell division becomes more specialized, begins to look human, stage of great vulnerability because most things are just forming 3. fetal stage (2months-birth)- muscles and bones begin to form, senses become functional, final three months brain cells multiply rapidly Age of viablility- 22-26 wks baby can survive in event of premature birth At 22-23 weeks probability of survival is 14-26% but at 26weeks 80-80% FIGURE 11.2 PAGE 421! Low birth weight is associated with increased risk of heart disease and diabetes later on in life Fetal Alcohol Syndrome causes microcephaly, heart defects, irritability, heart defects and delayed mental/motor development Motor development- progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities Cephalocaudal trend- head to foot direction of motor development, children tend to gain control of upper body first Proximodistal trend- center outward direction of motor development Infants typically triple their birth weight during their first year, height increases by about 45%, lengthy periods of no growth punctuated by sudden bursts of growth Maturation- development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint, genetically programmed physical changes that come with age New view says infants motor development is driven by their ongoing exploration of their world and their need to master specific tasks Developmental norms- indicate median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities Cross-cultural research has highlighted dynamic interplay between experience and maturation motor development, rapid motor development has been observed in cultures that provide special practice in basic motor skills (Kenyan tribes trains babies to walk and sit up) Temperament- characteristic mood, activity level, emotional reactivity
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Longitudinal design- investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time(more sensitive to developmental changes) Cross sectional design- compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time (more quickly, easily and cheaply completed) Thomas and Chess identified three basic styles of temperament in kids 1. easy children- (40%) happy, regular in eating and sleeping, adaptable, not
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Psych Reading Notes Chapter 11 - PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL...

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