Psych Reading Notes Chapter 12-1

Psych Reading Notes Chapter 12-1 - PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL...

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PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE Chapter Twelve- Reading Notes Distinctiveness- each person has their own distinctive set of personality traits Personality is used to explain stability of a person’s behavior over time (consistency) and behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) Personality- individuals unique set of consistent behavioral traits Personality trait- durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Most assume that some traits are more basic than others, IE a small number of fundamental traits determine other traits. Impulsive, restless, irritable may be derived from a basic tendency to be excitable Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to narrow down Gordon Allports 171 personality traits into 16 basic traits Factor analysis- correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related variable clusters, IE if two variables correlate highly it is assumed that there is a common factor influencing them Robert McCrae and Paula Costa Five-Factor Personality Model 1. Extraversion- outgoing, etc. .sometimes referred to as positive emotionality 2. Neuroticism- anxious, hostile, self conscious…sometimes called negative “ “ 3. Openness to Experience- curiosity, flexibility, vivid imagination (maybe a key determinant in political attitudes and ideology) 4. Agreeableness- sympathetic, trusting, cooperative 5. Conscientiousness- diligent, disciplined, well organized (sometimes called constraint) associated with living longer Big Five traits are indicative of behavior. IE extraversion has positive correlation with popularity, etc Some criticisms are that the model is just descriptive and provides no insight into causes/development of personality, more than 5 traits are needed to account for variation in human personality Psychodynamic theories- descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, focus on unconscious mental forces Freud’s psychoanalytic theory- attempts to explain personality, motivation and psychological disorders by focusing of the influences of early childhood, unconscious motives and conflicts and methods people use to cope with sexual and aggressive urges Controversial because he said people weren’t masters of their own minds, not masters of their own destinies and he talked a lot about sex Freud divided personality into three components, Id, ego and superego Id- primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle (reservoir of psychic energy- raw biological urges IE eating, sleeping, pooop)
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Pleasure principle- immediate gratification of its urges Engages in primary-process thinking, primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy orientated Ego- decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle, mediates with Id over its desire for immediate satisfaction with expectations and norms regarding suitable behavior
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Psych Reading Notes Chapter 12-1 - PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL...

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