Psych Reading Notes Chapter 13

Psych Reading Notes Chapter 13 - PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL...

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PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE Chapter Thirteen- Reading Notes Biopsychosocial model – physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors Health psychology – concerned with how psychological factors relate to promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness Stress – circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and that thereby tax ones coping abilities Affects of stress are cumulative, little things add up People’s appraisal of stressful events is highly subjective Acute stressors – threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint Chronic stressors – threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit Four major types of stress = frustration, conflict, change and pressure Frustration – occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted, want something that you can’t have. Failure and loss are to kinds of highly stressful frustration Conflict – occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression, and come in three types. Approach-approach, avoidance- avoidance and approach-avoidance Approach-approach – must choose from two attractive goals Avoidance-avoidance – must choose between two unattractive goals Approach-avoidance – choice must be made whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects, often produces vacillation (going back and forth between decisions, indecisive) Neal Miller showed this in rats Life changes – significant alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) – Holmes and Rahe, assigns numerical values to 43 major life events, people with higher scores on the scale tend to be more vulnerable to illness. Criticism is that it focuses on negative changes so it’s not clear that all change is stressful, SRRS assesses a wide range of stressful experiences not just change Pressure – involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way, two basic forms, pressure to perform and pressure to conform Stress affects an individual on several levels, 1) emotional responses, 2)
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Psych Reading Notes Chapter 13 - PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL...

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