APUSH Chapter 3 Notes - Melanie Navaratna Mr Tshudy Period...

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Melanie Navaratna Mr. Tshudy Period 2 August 14, 2019 Chapter 3 - Settling the Northern Colonies (1619-1700) Notes I. Introduction A. Colonists north and south were very different; colonists initially drawn to riches from the south; religious devotion began to colonists in the north II. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism A. 1517 German friar Martin Luther protested against Catholic doctrines - started Protestant Reformation; John Calvin of Geneva (religious leader) elaborated reformation - result: Calvinism, dominant theological credo of New England Puritans and others; Calvin wrote I nstitutes of the Christian Religion ; this happened when Henry VIII broke with Roman Catholic Church B. Some religious reformers wanted a purification of English Christianity - Puritans, came from depressed woolen districts; Calvinism was enticing to economically disadvantaged; the most devout Puritans thought only “visible saints” (felt stirrings of grace and could show it) would have church membership; Church of England allowed everyone, which angered them; dedicated Puritans - Separatists - broke away from Church of England; King James I opposed them and threatened to kick them out of the land III. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth A. Separatists leave for Holland 1608; didn’t like “Dutchification” of their kids; some Separatists from Holland negotiated with Virginia Company to settle in New World; boarded Mayflower, but was off-course; landed off the coast of New England 1620 with 102 people (less than half Separatists); settled at Plymouth Bay (outside of Virginia Company domain); Mayflower Compact made crude government; first winter, 44 survived, but no Separatists went back to England; leader William Bradford (self-taught scholar and former governor) feared non- Puritans; 1691 Plymouth colony merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony IV. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth A. Separatist Pilgrims - dedicated extremists, purest Puritans; moderate Puritans had support in Parliament to reform Church of England; bad news for them when Charles I dismissed Parliament and allowed Puritan persecutions; 1629, non-Separatists Puritans have royal charter to make Massachusetts Bay Company; ≈ 1000 immigrants settle in Boston 1630 - largest settlement starting; used charter as constitution; Great Migration of 1630s, ≈70,000
refugees left England; John Winthrop - Bay Colony’s first governor; fur, fishing, shipbuilding grew V. Building the Bay Colony A. All freemen - adult males of Puritan congregations: the Congregational Church; unchurched men and all women did not vote; more people could vote here than England; all male property holders could vote in town governments; the provincial government was not a democracy, Governor Winthrop hated democracy; only “visible saints” could be freemen, who did vote for representatives; everyone paid taxes for government-supported church B. Puritan clergy John Cotton enforced religious rules through the government; congregation could hire/fire minister and set his salary; clergymen couldn’t hold

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