•A1. Central Nervous System Overview•A2. Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves & Peripheral Nerves•A3. Microscope Review•A4. Histology of Nervous TissueTextbook Material:•Chapter 12.1 & 13 (Saladin 7th)Are you wearing appropriate attire?1Laboratory A
A1. Nervous System Overview2Objective:•Understand general features of the centralnervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervoussystem (PNS).Sciepro/Science Photo Library/Getty Images
A1. Nervous System Overview3Major Anatomical Features:•The brain and spinal cord are theprimary organs of the central nervoussystem (CNS) and are found in thedorsal cavity.•The peripheral nervous system (PNS) iscomposed of ganglia and nerves.FIGURE 12.1The Nervous System.
A1. Nervous System Overview4Divisions:•The PNS carries sensoryinformation from the periphery(organs, skin, muscle, etc.) into theCNS.•The PNS also carries motorinformation out of the CNS to theperipheral organs.•The 4 pathways within the PNSeither carry information to or fromthe visceral or somatic tissues•Thus, There are four divisions ofthe PNS:•Visceral sensory•Somatic sensory•Visceral motor•Somatic motorFIGURE 12.2Subdivisions of the Nervous System.
A2. Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves &Peripheral Nerves5Objectives:•Understand general structures of the spinal cord, spinal nerves and peripheralnerves relative to the features listed below and be able to identify on models,diagrams, and human donors.•Understand these terms relative to the pathways within the nerves and spinal cord:afferent/efferent; sensory/motor; ascending/descending; gray matter/white matter.•Identify each spinal nerve by number and understand their physical relationship tonumbered vertebrae.•Know the four major plexuses and which spinal nerves are associated with each.•Know the major peripheral nerves identified below and the plexus they areassociated with.
6A2. Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves & Peripheral NervesFig.13.1Spinal cord,posterior viewSpinal Cord: Structure•The spinal cord is essentially an“extension” of the brainthat extends to the levelof the first or second lumbarvertebrae.Spinal Cord: Functions•Provides conduction via neuralpathways between the brain and theperiphery.•Acts as an association center wheresensory information is integrated andcauses motor output controlled byrelatively simple spinal reflexes.•Central pattern generators are foundwithin the spinal cord and help tocoordinate locomotion.Note: We will cover thebrain in Lab B.
Anatomy:•The spinal cord is found within the vertebralcanal of the sequential vertebral foramina.•The spinal cord gives rise to cervical,thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal nerves.•Cervical and lumbar enlargements arethickened areas of the spinal cord.•The medullary cone is the terminus of thespinal cord.