Italian 20X Midterm Study Guide.pdf - Italian 20X MIDTERM...

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Italian 20X MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE 30 multiple choice questions and 2 open ended questions. Need a scantron (green, 100 questions) and a small blue book Catholic and Communist Cultures: Historical and political conditions for their emergence Unification of Italy, 1871 Before unification, it was split into 3 regions, each with its own traits: The south “Kingdom of the Two Sicilies” Ruled by Bourbons/Spanish/Sicilians, monarchy-ruled Very agricultural The Papal States (near the middle) The north “Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia” French and Austrian control, independent urban city-states formed in this area, learned more advanced gov’t practiced than the South The north allied with the French to free the south from the Spanish. Unification happened in 1871. The Papal States grudgingly joined the unification soon afterwards. Mussolini’s fascist regime, 1922 - 1940s The Italian people believed and followed Mussolini - “the strong leader who would turn war-torn Italy into strong empire” But Mussolini falls from power during WWII, and the Allies liberate Italy in violent struggle. Now Italy has no Mussolini and no foreign rule. It had to learn how to rule itself. Civil war between pro-fascists vs. resistance in the north, struggle to decide how to rule Italy. Post-WWII Italy From the struggle to decide how to rule Italy, 2 main parties come ahead: Catholics (DC) vs Communists (PCI) Values (what the party is centered around / believes in / likes) Catholic (DC) Private property / land / farm Family-centered Conservative gender roles (“man works, woman stays home”) The family is the “unit” of society. Less emphasis on the greater society Working the land Encouraged working hard on the fields Myth of the land: “Working the land and agriculture makes people morally good” Market-based economy
^These values + official Catholic influence made it the dominating party in Italy for decades Communists (PCI) Solidarity between workers and farmers The workers and farmers would work together, being good at what they do (workers work and farmers farm) and helping the greater society Individual-centered Each person is a unit in society, each person works for the greater public good Universal education All people should be educated so that they’ll be smarter/more informed and collectively improve society The party printed many newspapers/hosted many public/educational events and clubs for the people Abolishment of the dominant economic structure based on land ownership “We want the working class to be moral ; we don’t want them to imitate the bourgeoisie/middle class.” [Working class should be educated, but they shouldn’t be greedy and lazy like the ‘bourgeoisie’] “We want the middle class and working/farming class to work together in solidarity” “We should work to help each other, not bring ourselves up over others” Italian Communism as opposed to International Communism Italian Communist party was strongest communist party right under Soviet Union. Allies were worried that they would join the Soviets

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