Week 2,3,4 - Lecture Notes

Week 2,3,4 - Lecture Notes - D Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 D...

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1 Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Biomimicry and the lack of it • Biological Surfaces are Curved – People Built are Flat • We build with right angles – rare in living organisms • Natural materials are composite, anisotropic and pliant – man made stiff and fracture prone • Metal huge in our technology – not available in nature • Nature Uses water as structural material – we rarely do (firehoses) • Living tissue poor conductors – lots of diffusion, Man-made, good conductors, poor diffusers Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Key Concepts • Importance of Scale • Central Dogma • Key Bonding • Structure – four levels • Hierarchy • Commonality in Living Systems • Information Transfer • Control of Expression Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Basics • Life – Characteristics • Similarity with Non-living • First Source of Energy •3X10 7 Different Organisms – Commonality! • Implication • Development of Complexity? Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 SCALE • Things Are Not Always Linear • Whales and Bacteria
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2 Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Ranges of Sizes 100,000 10 -5 to 10 0 m Algae 10,000 10 -2 to 10 2 m Vascular Plants 1000 10 -1 to 10 2 m Mammals 1000 10 -2 to 10 1 m Fish 1000 10 -4 to 10 -1 m Insects Factor Range Group Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Length, Surface and Volume •C u b e ± Length L ± Area 6L 2 ± Volume L 3 • Sphere? • S/V proportional to 1/L Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Terminology • Genomics • Proteomics • Systems Biology • Organisms Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Elemental Percentages 0.3 0.7 0.6 S 0.6 0.7 0.6 P 74 78 63 O 3 1 5 N 10 9 9 H 12 11 19 C E. Coli Corn Human Element
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3 Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Molecules – Human Liver Cell 6% 2% Miscellaneous 6% 2% Polysaccharides 12% 3% Phospholipids 5% 1.25% RNA/DNA 71% 18% Protein 0% 70% Water Dry Wet Type of Molecule Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Polymers Fatty Acids Phospholipids Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Nucleotides DNA / RNA Amino Acids Protein Mer Polymer Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Water •H 2 0 of course. • Polar Molecule. • Capable of Hydrogen Bonding. • Polarity is important for solubility. Not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire D. Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 Solubility • Solubility in water is largely dependant on the charged character of a molecule.
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Week 2,3,4 - Lecture Notes - D Walsh ENGR 213 Spr 06 D...

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