Week 5,6 - Reading for Biomaterials

Week 5,6 - Reading for Biomaterials - Annu. Rev. Biomed....

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Unformatted text preview: Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2004. 6:4175 doi: 10.1146/annurev.bioeng.6.040803.140027 Copyright c 2004 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved First published online as a Review in Advance on March 24, 2004 B IOMATERIALS : Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going Buddy D. Ratner 1,2 and Stephanie J. Bryant 1 1 Department of Bioengineering and 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195; email: ratner@uweb.engr.washington.edu Key Words surface-modified biomaterials, synthetic polymers, biomimetic materials, self-assembling peptides, patterned biomaterials n Abstract Since its inception just over a half century ago, the field of biomaterials has seen a consistent growth with a steady introduction of new ideas and productive branches. This review describes where we have been, the state of the art today, and where we might be in 10 or 20 years. Herein, we highlight some of the latest advance- ments in biomaterials that aim to control biological responses and ultimately heal. This new generation of biomaterials includes surface modification of materials to overcome nonspecific protein adsorption in vivo, precision immobilization of signaling groups on surfaces, development of synthetic materials with controlled properties for drug and cell carriers, biologically inspired materials that mimic natural processes, and de- sign of sophisticated three-dimensional (3-D) architectures to produce well-defined patterns for diagnostics, e.g., biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMs), and tissue engineering. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 TRADITIONAL BIOMATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Host Response to Biomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The Performance of Contemporary Biomaterial Implants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 A NEW GENERATION OF BIOMATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Surface-Modified Biomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The Synthesis of New Biomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Biologically Inspired Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Patterned Biomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 THE FUTURE OF BIOMATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 INTRODUCTION A commonly used definition of biomaterial is a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems (1). If the words used in a medical device are removed, this definition becomes more inclusive to...
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Week 5,6 - Reading for Biomaterials - Annu. Rev. Biomed....

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