Week 4,5,6 - Lecture Notes

Week 4,5,6 - Lecture Notes - Bioengineering at the tissue...

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1 Bioengineering at the tissue level Specialized organization of cells Quote of the Day Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former. Albert Einstein HMMM
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2 Learning Objectives ± Define tissues ± List the four tissue types ± Define tissue engineering and how engineering is involved ± Define the term biomaterial ± Explain biocompatibility ± Provide examples of tissue engineering and biomaterials use Tissue ± Tissue: a group of cells and surrounding substances that function together to perform more specialized activities ± Four primary tissue types ± Epithelial ± Connective ± Muscle ± Nervous Epithelial Tissues ± Arranged in sheets ± One or more layers thick ± Organized into glands ± Adapted for secretion ± Free surface ± Form the interfaces of your body ± Functions: ± Absorption (e.g. small intestine) ± Secretion (e.g. glands) ± Transport (e.g. kidney tubules) ± Excretion (e.g. sweat glands) ± Protection (e.g. skin) ± Sensory Reception (e.g. taste buds) ht p:/ www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/lect_19.htm
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3 Connective Tissue ± Most abundant and widely distributed ± Loose woven fibers around and between organs ± Protective capsules around organs ± Ligaments and tendons ± Specialized connective tissues include: ± Blood ± Bone ± Cartilage ± Adipose tissue ht p:/ www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/lect_19.htm Muscle Tissue ± Muscles comprise 40 to 50 percent of body weight ± Generate forces by contraction ± Three muscle types ± skeletal ± Smooth (found in walls of blood vessels) ± cardiac ht p:/ www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/lect_19.htm Nervous Tissue ± Neurons ± Conduct electrical impulses ± Glial cells ± Protect, support, nourish neurons ht p:/ www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/lect_19.htm
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4 Tissue Material Complexity – Bone Example ± Cortical ± Trabecular ± “Structure within a structure” ± Features at every scale ± cm ± mm ± µ m ± nm Cortical Bone Trabecular Bone Bone Scales Trabecular Bone ± Struts are circumferentially lamellar in form ± Blood vessel in center of strut ± Bone cells in the interlamellar spaces
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5 Bone Cells ± Osteoblasts – a bone forming cell ± Osteoclasts – a specialized bone cell that enzymatically removes (excavates) bone ± Osteocytes – retired osteoblasts that maintain the tissue. They are surrounded by bone and are interconnected ± Bone lining cell – retired osteoblasts that regulate the passage of calcium in and out of the bone Tissue Engineering Tissue Engineering ± Central idea: Inducing the body to develop new tissues <perhaps organ systems eventually>, instead of replacing the tissue with an engineered device… ± An biomedical engineering discipline integrated with biology to create tissues or cellular products outside the body ± Diverse knowledge of molecular and cellular biology as well as chemical engineering, materials science, and other engineering disciplines
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6 Examples ± Blunt Trauma to an extremity ± Highly
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Week 4,5,6 - Lecture Notes - Bioengineering at the tissue...

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