Chapter 5 Notes.docx - Chapter 5 Cell Structure Functional...

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Chapter 5Cell StructureFunctional Anatomy of CellsoThe typical cell:Composite cell- exhibits the most important characteristics of many different human cell typesVaries in size; all are microscopicVaries in structure and functionShaped based on functionThree main parts of a celloPlasma membrane- separates the cell from its surrounding environment oNucleus- A large membranous structure near the center of the cell (control center) contains genetic materialoCytoplasm- A thick, gel-like substance inside the cell composed of numerous organelles suspended in watery cytosol *Plasma, plasm, plasmic, plast= a fluid space or boundary*Nucleus= core *Cyto= cellCell Membranes oEach cell contains a variety of membranes:Plasma membrane- outer boundary of cell Membranous organelles- sacs and canals made of the same material as the plasma membrane Fluid Mosaic ModeloMolecules of the cell membrane arranged in a sheet
oThe mosaic of molecules is fluidoThis model illustrates that the molecules of the cell membrane form a continuous sheetIntegral Membrane Proteins (IMPs)oA cell controls what moves through membrane by means of IMPs embedded in the phospholipid bilayeroSome IMPs have carbohydrates attached to them and as a result form glycoproteins Glycoproteins act as identification markers, that are recognized by other molecules; they also act as signs that identify the enclosed areasoSome IMPs are receptors that react to specific chemicalsReceptors can sometimes trigger signal transduction, which is the process by which cells translate the signal received by a membrane receptor into a specific chemical change in the cellEndoplasmic ReticulumoRough ERRibosomes synthesize proteins, which move toward the Golgi apparatus and eventually leave the celloSmooth ERRemoves and stores calcium ions from the cells interior

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