PRODUCTION PRACTICES FOR ANNUAL & PERENNIAL CROPSNENITA B. BALDOAgronomy and Plant Breeding Department College Of AgricultureCentral Mindanao UniversityMusuan, BukidnonKNOW THE CROPKNOW THE SITE/LOCATION CHARACTERISTICSCrop RequirementSite Characteristics Considerations and Concern- Climate requirements- Climate- Soil Requirements- Soil - Biological Considerations- Physical - Socioeconomic/cultural considerations- Biological - Environmental Concerns- Socio economic considerations - Other special requirements - Other Constraints to productivityCROPPING PURPOSE AND INTENSITY Commercial or family consumption:- twice a year or thrice a yearFigure 1. Schematic Diagram on Components of Crop ProductionA. Site Selection and Its Consideration1. Peace and Order Situation2. Accessibility to Transportation Facilities and Marketing Centers 3. Availability of Labor4. Climate Factor: a. Water or Rainfall - 90-95% plant weight on fresh weight basis is water- raw material for photosynthesis- Classification of Plants Based on Water Needs:a.1. Xerophytes – requires less water ex. Dessert plants or orchidsa.2.Mesophytes – requires moderate amount of water; most of the upland crops ex. Corn and legumesa.3. Hydrophytes – water loving plants ex. rice, kangkongTable 1.Average consumptive use of water by representative cropsCROPGROWING PERIODCONSUMPTIVE USE (cm)Rice90-12075 WS – 112 DSCassava240-35650-250Corn 10055mungbean60-6841peanut90-15050-60soybean80-9053Sugarcane350-365b. Temperature – optimum temperature during growing season. - Low night temperature – best for fruit development - Low temperature months – favors the planting of cool season crops
c. Light – required daylength and degree of tolerance by crop.- needed by the plant in the process of photosynthesis.- Classification of Plants Based on Light:c.1. Light Duration – refers to daylengthLong day Plant (LDP) – requires light >12 hours to flower. Short day Plant (SDP) – requires <12 hours of day length to flower. Day Neutral Plant (DNP) – not affected by photoperiod. c.2. Light Intensity – refers to the amount of light received by the plant. - Shade–loving plants – requires less light intensity. Grow well under shaded conditions ex. ginger, coffee, cacao, and gabi. - Sun-loving plants – requires light intensity from 10,000 to 15,000 ft. candle ex. rice, corn, legumes. c.3. Light Quality – refers to the wave length of light d. Air – Compose of Nitrogen, oxygen, CO2 and H2Oe. Wind – sensitivity to wind movements or typhoons.Normal wind velocity in the Philippines = 7.2 km/hr.Table 2. Wind speed and affected processes, structure, or parts of plant5. Soil Requirement * pH – range tolerated by plant: 5.0-7.5 – optimum pH for field crops; cassava, sweet potato and some new strains of peanut, soybean, cowpea and corn = 4.3 – 5.0 (tolerance) * Soil fertility – different type of plants requires specific nutrients (16 to 17 essential elements; macro and micro elements) * Organic matter – indicator of N fertility (> 2%) * Adaptation to problem soils – saline, acid soils, etc.6. Biological considerations (involves living organisms) * Resistance/susceptibility to pests and diseases.