Crop Pests & Their Methods of Control.doc - 1 METHODS OF INSECT PEST CONTROL Definition of Terms and Their Implications Insect Pests are insects

Crop Pests & Their Methods of Control.doc - 1 METHODS OF...

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1 METHODS OF INSECT PEST CONTROL Definition of Terms and Their Implications Insect Pests are insects that injure or cause damage to man’s interest. They are organisms or animals that destroy, compete with humans for food and shelter, transmit diseases, and reduce availability, quality, and value of human resources. It is restricted to refer only to insects and mites that cause economic damage to agricultural crops, plant products, and structures. Insecticides – any substance used to kill insects. However, insecticides also kill or affect other organisms, man, and animals. The term pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, bactericides, nematicides, molluscicides, and rodenticides. Agro ecosystem – is an agricultural area sufficiently large to permit long-term interactions of all the living organisms in their non-living environment. Insect Control – the performance of any practice that prevents further increase in insect pest population growth or that suppresses or reduces existing insect pest population. To many, insect control denotes chemical control. Principles of Insect Control The principles of insect control can be divided into two groups, namely: those that reduce insect pest populations and those that decelerate their rates of increase . Reduction of Population of Insect Pests The initial population of an insect pest may be reduced by any measure exemplifying any of the four principles: exclusion, eradication, therapy, or vertical resistance. Exclusionary measures are those applied directly against insect pests to keep out those pests that are already outside the field, farm, region, or the country. Legally enforced stoppages of insect pests at ports of entry- by inspection, interception, destruction, and quarantine- are perhaps the most familiar preventive insect pest control measures that exemplify the principle of exclusion. Other examples are planting of seeds or materials that are certified free of insect pests, weeds, and pathogens that are not yet established on a farm, region, or country. Eradicative measures are eliminative; they get rid of insect pests already present in an area. Eradicative measures are frequently taken against pests during interim between growing seasons for crop plants, but some such measures may continue year round. The most familiar eradicative pest control measures are soil treatment with heat or chemicals to control insect pests, weeds and pathogens; chemical treatments to poison insect pests, and vermin; dormant sprays with insecticides and other pesticides; crop rotation with non-susceptible plant species to deny insects and other pests of their sustenance; genetic insect control method (introduction of sterile males in an island); and mechanical or chemical destruction of pests. The essence of an eradicative control measures is its reduction of pest populations to a point below economic thresholds (ETL) by eliminative action taken directly against pests themselves.
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