1METHODS OF INSECT PEST CONTROLDefinition of Terms and Their ImplicationsInsect Pestsare insects that injure or cause damage to man’s interest. They are organisms or animals thatdestroy, compete with humans for food and shelter, transmit diseases, and reduce availability, quality, and valueof human resources. It is restricted to refer only to insects and mites that cause economic damage toagricultural crops, plant products, and structures.Insecticides – any substance used to kill insects. However, insecticides also kill or affect other organisms,man, and animals. The term pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, bactericides, nematicides,molluscicides, and rodenticides.Agro ecosystem – is an agricultural area sufficiently large to permit long-term interactions of all the livingorganisms in their non-living environment.Insect Control – the performance of any practice that prevents further increase in insect pest population growthor that suppresses or reduces existing insect pest population. To many, insect control denotes chemical control.Principles of Insect ControlThe principles of insect control can be divided into two groups, namely: those thatreduce insect pest populationsand those thatdecelerate their rates of increase.Reduction of Population of Insect PestsThe initial population of an insect pest may be reduced by any measure exemplifying any of the four principles:exclusion, eradication, therapy, or vertical resistance.Exclusionary measuresare those applied directly against insect pests to keep out those pests that are alreadyoutside the field, farm, region, or the country. Legally enforced stoppages of insect pests at ports of entry- byinspection, interception, destruction, and quarantine- are perhaps the most familiar preventive insect pest controlmeasures that exemplify the principle of exclusion. Other examples are planting of seeds or materials that arecertified free of insect pests, weeds, and pathogens that are not yet established on a farm, region, or country.Eradicative measuresare eliminative; they get rid of insect pests already present in an area. Eradicative measuresare frequently taken against pests during interim between growing seasons for crop plants, but some suchmeasures may continue year round. The most familiar eradicative pest control measures are soil treatment with heator chemicals to control insect pests, weeds and pathogens; chemical treatments to poison insect pests, and vermin;dormant sprays with insecticides and other pesticides; crop rotation with non-susceptible plant species to denyinsects and other pests of their sustenance; genetic insect control method (introduction of sterile males in anisland); and mechanical or chemical destruction of pests. The essence of an eradicative control measures is itsreduction of pest populations to a point below economic thresholds (ETL) by eliminative action taken directly againstpests themselves.