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ANS 215 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 I. The cell, its structure and functions a. What separates the cell cytoplasm from interstitial fluid? the cell membrane b. What are organelles? i. Highly organize physical structures consisting of the mucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, and centrioles c. Define the nuclear membrane. i. Also called the nuclear envelope ii. Consists of two nuclear membranes d. What is chromatin? i. Organizes into the chromosome ii. Appear as dark-staining particles e. Differentiate between granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum. i. The granular ER has ribosomes attached to the surface, and where it is smooth is called the agranular ER f. What is the function of the golgi apparatus? i. Closely related to the ER ii. Packages materials made in the cell and then transforms them into units that are then distributed outside of the cell g. What is the principal substance of lysosomes? i. Contain digestive enzymes h. What cellular functions do the centrioles perform? i. Involved with cell division, without centrioles, the cells cannot reproduce by cell division II. Energy Production a. What substance is formed from the catabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins to begin the aerobic stage of energy production via the citric acid cycle?
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