9. Romantic Era & Thematic Transformation - MUS 100.pptx - 9 THE ROMANTIC ERA THEMATIC TRANSFORMATION\u2013 LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR FILM COMPOSITION

9. Romantic Era & Thematic Transformation - MUS 100.pptx -...

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9. THE ROMANTIC ERA & THEMATIC TRANSFORMATION– LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR FILM COMPOSITION
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APPLIES TO INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC ONLY! PROGRAM MUSIC Music that has a descriptive title and gives an Insight into the composer’s intentions Music with an “extra-musical” idea Story - ”play by play” or allusion to a story Subject (person, place or thing) – A symphony about “UIC,” for example A lot of program music is written for orchestra – but program music is NOT restricted to only orchestral performance . String quartets & other groups have program music written for their combinations 2 A REVIEW: PROGRAM vs. ABSOLUTE MUSIC
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APPLIES TO INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC ONLY! ABSOLUTE MUSIC Opposite of Program Music Music written without any particular “extra-musical” descriptive intent. “Piece No. 2,” “Symphony No. 18,” (Generic titling) 3 PROGRAM vs. ABSOLUTE MUSIC
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Practice of “TT” became popular with composers in early 19 th Century & Continues to present day: Beethoven Liszt Berlioz Wagner 4 “THEMATIC TRANSFORMATION”
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Transforming a Theme” General Definition: Using a melody/theme throughout a piece of music, but changing its qualities when it reappears (rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, etc.) Is a particularly useful musical device when music (used as music only, or as a soundtrack for film or theater) has a “program/story” to convey 5 “THEMATIC TRANSFORMATION”
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6 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) (Age 49 - deaf) Working in Vienna
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7 Beethoven (1770-1827) – Bridge between ”Classical” and Romantic Eras Among his “cutting edge” innovations to classical form, harmony & instrumental combinations was the notion of: “THEMATIC TRANSFORMATION!”
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8 Limited output Wrote ”only” 9 symphonies (compared to 41 by Mozart; 104 by Haydn) Was particular which commissions he accepted Constantly revised works Works typically longer than those of his contemporaries BEETHOVEN’S COMPOSITIONAL PROCESS
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9 Works were longer – Needed way to “organize” for listener Prior to Beethoven – Symphonies organized by key “Movement” – in music, a part of the whole. Works of longer duration frequently broken into parts – like a book has various chapters. Example/Review: “Symphony No. 100 in G Major” 1. Allegro 2. Adagio 3. Moderato 4. Presto BEETHOVEN’S INNOVATION – “CYCLIC FORM”
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10 “Cyclic Form” – Carrying the same motive (motive – short duration melody) or theme throughout a long duration/multi-movement work. Creates UNITY for the entire work In his “Symphony No. 5 in C minor” – Beethoven uses a 4-note motive throughout each of the 4 movements. BEETHOVEN’S INNOVATION – “CYCLIC FORM”
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11 Beethoven’s Cyclic form includes “Thematic Transformation”: “Symphony No. 5 in C minor” – he uses a 4-note motive throughout each of the 4 movements. He does not use the 4-note motive exactly as he does at the start of the first movement. Instead, he changes pitch, tempo, melodic direction, and the like in each of the 4 movements = “Thematic Transformation” BEETHOVEN’S INNOVATION – “CYCLIC FORM”
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Ludwig Van Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C minor Written ca. 1804-1808
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