The Great War.docx - Theme B Conflicts and Cooperation in...

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Theme B: Conflicts and Cooperation in the 20 th Century World Background for 20 th Century Europe Powers Nature of government Strengths Weakness/ major concern Internal Interests External Interests Britain Parliament democracy Largest and most populous empire; Controlled most trade routes ; Strongest and largest navy : Royal Navy; Industrialized and technologically advanced Britain’s domination of power in Europe increasingly challenged by Germany N/A To remain the dominant power in the world (rival: Germany) France Democratic Republic Self- sufficient; (agriculture) World’s leading trading nation; Second largest colonial power Unstable governing ideology (left vs right) Industrial production behind Britain and Germany Geographical proximity: Germany N/A Imperialistic ambitions; Reclaiming Alsace and Lorraine; Revenge for defeat in Franco- Prussian War; Contain Germany by forming alliances with UK and Russia (rival: Germany) Germany Democratic monarchy: power held by Kaiser and Chancellor Leading industrial and military power : strong effective economy, rapid industrialization Conflicts between large working class, growing middle class and the government; growing population, lack of resources N/A Compete/ cooperate with Britain in developing overseas empire ; World domination (Rivals: Britain, France, Russia) Austria- Hungary Dual monarchy Land- based Slow economic growth; Internal unrest caused by different ethnic groups : multi- national European empire in the age of nationalism; Weak military N/A Expansion in the Balkans (Rivals: Turkey, Italy, Russia) Russia Autocracy: rule by the Tsars Significant human resources Low industrialization; Weak military : defeat in Russo- Japanese War; Backward economy Maintain the rule of the monarchy and suppress internal revolt Safeguarding the interests and rights of the Slavic race in the Balkan peninsula ( Pan- Slavism ): support Ottoman Empire to establish
influence in the Balkan region (Rivals: Austria- Hungary, Germany) Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Empire, ruled by the the Sultan N/A Sick Man of Europe ”: political discontent, racial division (Turks, Slavs etc.), heavy debt Balkan Peninsula N/A Sources of Rivalries and Conflicts Part A: Rise of Extreme Nationalism Evolution of Nationalism: 19th century: people of the same race, language, historical and cultural background should be unified to form a nation of their own and have self-government Late 19th and early 20th centuries: national glory, extreme patriotism, expansion of nation and struggle for the biggest and best of everything European powers and respective extreme nationalist movements Features Powers in alliance Powers in conflict Germany 1. To achieve a leading world power status 2. To have more aggressive foreign policies 3. To promote world domination Pan Germanism Austria- Hungary France, Britain, Prussia France Regain lost prestige to take revenge against her biggest enemy Germany to regain Alsace and Lorraine Britain (maybe) Germany Russia 1. To exert greater influence over the Slavic states in the Balkans 2.

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