Blue Planet Notes for Exam 1

Blue Planet Notes for Exam 1 - Science A system of learning...

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Science A system of learning and understanding the natural world. Body of knowledge Advances through scientific method. The Scientific Method Systematic, disciplined testing of ideas. Design objective and controlled experiments/observations. Try to disprove hypothesis/idea. Very successful o Increase in knowledge of natural world o Technological advances Doesn’t answer everything Steps: o Observation (acquire evidence) o Formulate hypothesis or multiple hypotheses Hypothesis: an educated guess/idea that can be proven or disproved. o Test hypothesis Design experiment or new set of observations Make predictions, test and evaluate. o Hypothesis may be rejected Go back to beginning o Hypothesis may be supported Further tests, more predictions If multiple tests support hypothesis then it becomes a theory. o Theory: a well supported hypothesis that explains lots of observations. Theories are never proven to be true, only false. Key: disprovability. Hypotheses must be falsifiable. Geocentric Earth is at center of the universe. Problems: o Retrograde Motion: planets move mostly to the east, but occasionally stop and move to the west before moving east again. o Epicycle: The path of a body around the earth. Used to explain retrograde motion. Came to have multiple epicycles within epicycles. Copernicus 1490’s o Revised old heliocentric idea. o Retrograde motion was more easily explained. Different orbits, different time around sun. o Made it possible to predict when retrograde motion would occur. o Implications Earth must rotate around spin axis.
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Foucault pendulum: a pendulum is on a fixed plane. So, if the pendulum is on the North Pole then you would witness the pendulum rotate 360 degrees over the course of a day. Life on Mars August 1996 NASA Researchers announced that they had discovered ancient microscopic life in meteorite from Mars. (large impact on Mars and blasted off surface of Mars) o Igneous rock: life (fossil) in cracks. There were “frozen” bubbles of Martian atmosphere in cracks. Four pieces of circumstantial evidence of life o Small patches of carbonate (often byproducts of microbes) Found in other asteroids – byproduct of solar system formation? o Small magnetite grains (found in many living microbes) Thermal decomposition of iron-bearing mineral siderite o Complex organic molecules (necessary for life) Not unusual in other asteroids or contamination? o Small rod like structures (look like microfossils?) Rods much smaller than living earth bacteria Hypothesis ultimately rejected, but it spurred much more research. Extreme environments on earth where life has been found o Cave Walls o Deep Oceans o Hot Springs System Abstractions of the real world Common characteristics of a system: o Structure/organization o Function in some way o Transfer material/energy between components o Contain functional and structural relationships
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Blue Planet Notes for Exam 1 - Science A system of learning...

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