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Notes for Exam 1 - Introduction Sociology The systematic...

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Introduction Sociology : The systematic study of human society. Society : People who interact in a define territory and share a culture. -What are the pieces of “human society”? - People and their interactions with… Other people Institutions Their environment Subfields of Sociology The ASA (American Sociological Association) includes roughly 40 sections within the field of sociology. Sociology at UNM - Seven primary fields Crime Gender Organizations Race Political Culture The Sociological Perspective “Seeing the general in the particular” - We look for general patterns in the behavior of particular people. Seeing the strange in the familiar” - Looking at individuals outside of themselves “Seeing the individual in social context” - Social context shapes the actions, thoughts, behavior, morals, ideas, culture, given individuals. A Global Perspective Individuals do not live in isolation Nations and countries do not live in isolation Societies no not live in isolation *Important to understand yourself and others
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Benefits of this Perspective Nothing is “self-evident” or “common sense” Why do some believe that the “man and woman” marriage is “self-evident”? Sociology forces us to understand how that sentiment came to prominence and remains in an advance society. Constraints and Opportunities Society determines and shapes our decisions, actions, and opportunities. Benefits of this Perspective We can be active participants in society o The more you understand about how something works the better you are able to shape it/fix it/change it. Sociology vs. Social Philosophy Sociology o The systematic study of human society. Social Philosophy o Opinions about the way the world “is” o Opinions about the way the world “ought to be” What Philosophers Do o Search of the “truth” o Make intellectual assertions about the nature of the world o Concerned with “facts” What Sociologists Do o Create an equal consistent theory based on examinations and research of empirical. Sociological Assertions o Make logical sense o Correspond to the facts Empirical Reality o What actually “is” o No opinions, just facts drawn from observation The Origins of Sociology Auguste Comte: The father of sociology Social change and sociology o Industry o Urbanization o Politics
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Auguste Comte Frenchman 1798-1857 1838: Coined the term “Sociology” o Meaning socius (with other), logos (study of) Wanted a science free of religious arguments of society and human nature Based in enlightment attitudes o Positivism: knowledge based on systematic observation Using positivism, sociologists could “solve” social problems such as crime, poverty, war, etc… Sociology is the product of a three stage historical cycle: o Theological stage o Metaphysical stage o Scientific stage Theological Stage Roughly from the beginning of human history to the end of the European middle
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