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Notes for Final Exam

Notes for Final Exam - Education Education the social...

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Education Education: the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge: o Basic facts o Job skills o Cultural norms and values Education is often a matter of schooling o Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers Conventional Wisdom (macro-level) o Education leads to Economic Development The two appear correlated, but in which direction is the casual path? College degrees by country (5 of 25-64 yrs) US: 27% Canada: 19% Australia: 18% Portugal: 7% Norway: 25% Japan: 18% Sweden: 13% All are advanced economies, but variation Social Functions of Education (Functionalist) Socialization o Learn Language, etc o Key agent in secondary socialization Cultural Innovation o Transmit culture o Higher Ed: research leads to cultural innovation Social Integration o Schooling brings diverse populations into a unified society o Assimilation, conformity Social Placement o Schools identify and develop talents in students o Reward ability and effort o Meritocracy: system in which the most skilled and able gain the highest social reward. Manifest vs. Latent functions Critique o Overlooks the “tracking” of students o Is it really meritocratic? o Conformity, assimilation the best things? Schools cause and perpetuate social inequality in various ways (Conflict) Social Control
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o Reinforces acceptance of the status quo o Emphasizes cultural uniformity o Particular norms valued (compliance, punctuality, discipline) o “The Hidden Curriculum”: subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom. Schools lead to inequality o Education and Industrial Capitalism The norms and values of schools mirror the economic system Punctuality, obedience to authority, discipline, efficiency Rewards and punishments “Achievers” pushed toward higher education; “Failures” pushed into low-wage labor. o Student Tracking Assigning students to different types of educational programs College prep, vocational and technical, etc. Students from wealthy families tend to end up in college prep track Students from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to end up in vocational tracks Jonathan Kozol, “Savage Inequalities” o Unequal Schools Think about this in Albuquerque/New Mexico Private vs. Public? Within public, by area of town? Computer labs, students per classroom, teacher salaries, security, etc. Student/teacher ratio? o Unequal access to higher education 62% of US high school grads enter college the fall following their graduation Among 18-24 years, only 36% enrolled Family income is strongest predictor Lottery Scholarship in NM help that?
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Notes for Final Exam - Education Education the social...

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