Chapter 18 - What act together to coordinate all systems of the body Nervous and Endocrine systems What does the nervous system release

Chapter 18 - What act together to coordinate all systems of...

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What act together to coordinate all systems of the body Nervous and Endocrine systems What does the nervous system release neurotransmitters What does the endocrine system release hormones most hormones circulate how through the blood and bind to receptors on "target cells" Neurotransmitters also bind to what receptors on "target cells" Exocrine glands secret their products into what ducts and none of these are hormones What glands are included in Exocrine system. Sudiferous (sweat), sebaceous (oil), mucous glands, digestive glands and other throughout the body. Mediator molecules in nervous and endocrine system Nervous: Neurotransmitters released locally in response to nerve impulses. Endocrine system: hormones delivered to tissues throughout body by blood. Endocrine secrete what Hormones. Site of mediator action in nervous system and endocrine Close to site of release, at synapse; binds to receptors in post synaptic membrane. Far from site of release (usually); binds to receptors on or in target cells. Types of target cells in nervous and endocrine system Muscle cells, gland cells, other neurons Cells thought the body Where do endocrine glands secrete hormones They do not have ducts and secrete their hormones directly into the interstitial fluid that surrounds them Time of onset action in nervous and endocrine system Typically within milliseconds Seconds to hours to days Hormone diffusion characteristics in the endocrine system Diffuse into the blood stream through capillaries and are carried to target cells throughout the body Endocrine glands include what Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands What are other organs and tissues that are not part of the endocrine system but secrete hormones Hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta Hormones traveling throughout the body will affect what Only target cells that posses specific protein receptors Receptors are continually doing what Being synthesized and broken down When will receptors be down- regulated In the presence of high concentrations of hormone Receptors may be up regulated when Presence of low concentrations of hormone
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What are local hormones Hormones that don't circulate. Paracrines. What are autocrines Those that act in the same cell that secretes them What does the adrenal cortex secrete Aldosterone, cortisol, androgens What does the kidney secrete Calcitrol What do the testes secrete Testosterone What do the ovaries secrete Estrogen and progesterone What does the thyroid gland secrete T3, t4 Where is the gas nitric oxide secreted from Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels Responses to the same hormone may vary depending on what The hormone itself and the target cell Responses to the same hormone may be what Synthesis of new molecules Changing permeability of the cell membrane
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