FINAL EXAM Spring 2007 Form A - KEY

FINAL EXAM Spring 2007 Form A - KEY - Questions 1-21 are...

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Questions 1-21 are from the last ¼ of the course ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Questions 1-3 use the following information: Some tropical trees produce extrafloral nectaries. Extrafloral nectaries are small glands on the leaves of the tree that secrete sugary (high carbohydrate) substances. These nectaries attract ants, which feed upon the sugar rewards. 1. A biologist states “Trees with extrafloral nectaries attract ants that protect the tree from herbivores”. This statement is a (an): a. prediction *b. hypothesis c. test d. result e. conclusion 2. The biologist then states "If trees with extrafloral nectaries attract ants that protect the tree from herbivores then trees without nectaries should have higher herbivory than trees with extrafloral nectaries". This statement is a (an): *a. prediction b. hypothesis c. test d. result e. conclusion The biologist then conducts an experiment. She removes nectaries from 10 trees while leaving nectaries intact on 10 other trees. After one year, she then measures percent of leaves damaged by herbivores. Her results are as follows: 0 20 40 60 80 100 With Nectaries Without Nectaries 3. What is the best conclusion from these results? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 1 % leaves eaten by herbivores
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14. A biologist suspects that jaguars (big cats) in Florida are keystone predators. Jaguars feed on various small mammals, which in turn, feed on plants, seeds, and various insects. The biologist compares areas of the Florida everglades where jaguars are present and another area where they are not. Which of the following evidence would support his hypothesis that jaguars are keystone predators (hint: recall the Pisaster intertidal experiment): 5. Long-term fur records from the Hudson Bay Company show that hares and lynxes oscillate in fairly regular 9-11 year cycles. More recent field experiments where food quantity, food quality or predatory lynxes are manipulated and compared to control (no manipulation) show: a. lynx predation solely determine hare densities b. food quality is most important in determining hare densities *c. a combination of food quantity and predation have the greatest effect on hare densities d. weather factors outweigh all other variables in determining hare densities e. predation is more important than food quantity in determining hare densities
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