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HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSEpidemiology Paper: Human Immunodeficiency VirusCatherine GuzmanGrand Canyon University: NRS-428VNDecember 8, 2019 1
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS Epidemiology Paper: Human Immunodeficiency VirusHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was identified in 1983 by scientist in France but the virus was around long before then.The first verified case of HIV is from a blood sample taken in 1959 from a man living in what is now Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Avert, 2019).How the Human Immunodeficiency Virus began has been a debate since 1983. Evidence now suggests that a type of chimpanzee in South Africa was identified as the source of HIV. The infected chimpanzees were haunted by humans for meat. Humans eat the chimpanzee meat and came in contact with the infected blood. The virus mutated to what we know now as Human Immunodeficiency Virus and infected those individuals. HIV slowly spread throughout Africa and the world. I will discuss Human Immunodeficiency Virus, what happens if left untreated,how social determinants of health (SDOH) contribute to the development of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, epidemiological triangle, role of community health nurse, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and global impact of HIV. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system. The body cannot fight the Human Immunodeficiency Virus like it fights the common cold because HIV damages cells in the immune system. HIV attacks CD4 cells, which are the body’s defense against infection. Once a person is infected with HIV the person has it for the rest of their life. There are no known cures for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Symptoms of HIV vary but can include flu like symptoms, fatigue, weight loss, night sweets, diarrhea, skin rash, or mouth sores. Human Immunodeficiency Virus is spread through unprotected sex, blood or injection drug sharing with a person that is HIV positive. HIV is not spread by air, sweat, tears, insects, or sharing toilets. The sigma that comes with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a barrier to 2
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS people seeking testing and receiving treatment. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act(HIPPA), protects individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus from having their status revealed unnecessarily. If Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)positive person is left untreated complications may occur and the individual can die from opportunistic infections. For example, CD4 cells decrease fewer than two-hundred, the person develops acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The individual is now vulnerable to opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections are infections that occur when a person has a compromised immune system. Some examples of opportunistic infections are herpes simplex, candidiasis, toxoplasmosis, and salmonella. The bestway, for an HIV positive individual to reduce their risk of opportunistic infections is to take their antiretroviral medication as prescribed. There is no cure for Human