Fallacy Theory - Fallacy Theory Evaluating Arguments Formal...

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Fallacy Theory – Evaluating Arguments Formal Fallacy (Structure Flaw) Affirming the Consequent: if A then B, B, thus A invalid version of Modus Ponens (affirming the antecedent) Courtney will go to the movie only if she finishes her homework. She finished her homework, so she will go to the movie. Denying the Antecedent: if A then B, not A, thus B Invalid version of Modus Tollens (denying the consequent) Courtney will go to the movie only if she finishes her homework. She didn’t go to the movie, so she didn’t finish her homework. Exclusive Or Fallacy: occurs when an “or” that is inclusive is mistakenly read as being exclusive Courtney will either go to the movie or she will finish her homework. She went to a movie, so she didn’t finish her homework. Illicit Predicate Instantiation I All S’s are P’s, x is a P, so x is an S All humans are mortal, Socrates is mortal, thus Socrates is a human Illicit Predicate Instantiation II All S’s are P’s, x is not an S, so x is not a P All humans are mortal, Socrates is not a human, thus Socrates is not mortal Illicit Universal Syllogism I All A’s are B’s, all B’s are C’s, thus all C’s are A’s All dogs are mammals, all mammals are animals, so all animals are dogs Illicit Universal Syllogism II All A’s are B’s, all A’s are C’s, so all C’s are B’s All executives are well paid, all executives are stockholders, so all stockholders are well paid.
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Fallacies of Relevancy Genetic Fallacy: the origins of source or the reasons are criticized instead of the cogency of the reason offered for a claim The Chicago Tribune editorial yesterday advocated raising taxes to support social programs. This is what we’d expect from a liberal newspaper Appeal to the Person (ad hominem): The person offering the argument is attacked in terms of person characteristics, their circumstances, or because of their actions. Species of genetic fallacy Has 3 subspecies o AH abusive: character attacked; Bill Clinton’s endorsement of his wife for the Democratic nomination can hardly be taken seriously given his own “ethics.” o AH circumstantial: arguers circumstances attacked; The president of the teachers’ union is advocating higher wagges for teachers, but she herself
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PHIL 180 taught by Professor Macpherson during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Fallacy Theory - Fallacy Theory Evaluating Arguments Formal...

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