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Unformatted text preview: Oracle® Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide 18c E83779-04 July 2018 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide, 18c E83779-04 Copyright © 2007, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Eric Belden Contributing Authors: Jerry Abraham, Prasad Bagal, Mark Bauer, Don Bolinger, Bill Bridge, Chan Chan, Xiaobin Chen, Hanlin Chien, Jonathan Creighton, Yanfei Fan, Dave Friedman, Barb Glover, Fred Glover, Ricardo Gonzalez, Allan Graves, Cesar Gray, Shie-rei Huang, Rekha Iyer, Sameer Joshi, Ankur Kemkar, Diane Lebel, Rich Long, Colin McGregor, Gregory Mengel, Harendra Mishra, Valarie Moore, Nitin Munjal, Darshan Nagarajappa, Harish Nandyala, Bob Nelson, Balaji Pagadala, Satish Panchumarthy, Hemanth Pikkili, Soma Prasad, Mounica Reddy, Kathy Rich, Charles Rusman, Francisco Sanchez, Santhosh Selvaraj, Duane Smith, Joshua Smith, Laura Solis, Malai Stalin, Emily Su, Amar Subba, Yaser Suleiman, Elisabeth Thibault, Michael Timpanaro-Perrotta, Samarjeet Tomar, Brian Tsao, P Venkatraman, Anton Verhulst, Ric Werme, Rajiv Wickremesinghe, Jim A. Williams, Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Song Ye This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing. 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This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information about content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services unless otherwise set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services, except as set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Contents Preface Audience xliv Documentation Accessibility xliv Related Documents xliv Conventions xlv Changes in This Release for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 18c xlvi Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM in Oracle ASM 18c xlix Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1) lii Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM for Oracle ASM 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1) liv Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2) lvii Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM for Oracle ASM 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2) lvii Changes in Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1) lviii Changes in Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM for Oracle ASM 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1) lxii Part I 1 Introduction Introducing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Overview of Oracle Automatic Storage Management 1-1 About Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System 1-2 Understanding Oracle ASM Concepts 1-3 About Oracle ASM Instances 1-3 About Oracle ASM Disk Groups 1-6 About Mirroring and Failure Groups 1-7 About Oracle ASM Disks 1-8 About Oracle ASM Allocation Units 1-8 iii About Oracle ASM Files Understanding Oracle ASM Extents 1-9 Understanding Oracle ASM Striping 1-10 About Oracle ASM File Templates 1-12 Understanding Oracle ASM Disk Group Administration 2 1-12 About Discovering Disks 1-13 About Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups 1-13 About Adding and Dropping Disks 1-13 About Online Storage Reconfigurations and Dynamic Rebalancing 1-14 Exploring Considerations for Oracle ASM Storage Storage Resources for Disk Groups 2-1 Oracle ASM and Multipathing 2-3 Recommendations for Storage Preparation 2-4 Storage Device Path and Permission Persistence 2-6 Part II 3 1-9 Oracle ASM Instances and Disk Groups Administering Oracle ASM Instances Operating with Different Releases of Oracle ASM and Database Instances Simultaneously 3-1 Initialization Parameters for Oracle ASM Instances 3-2 About Initialization Parameter Files for an Oracle ASM Instance 3-3 About Backing Up, Copying, and Moving an Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter File 3-4 Creating, Copying, and Moving an SPFILE Into a Disk Group 3-5 Making a Back Up Copy of an Oracle ASM SPFILE in a Disk Group 3-6 About Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter Settings 3-7 About Automatic Memory Management for Oracle ASM 3-7 Recommended Settings for Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters 3-8 ASM_DISKGROUPS 3-9 ASM_DISKSTRING 3-10 ASM_IO_PROCESSES 3-11 ASM_POWER_LIMIT 3-11 ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_GROUPS 3-12 DB_CACHE_SIZE 3-14 DIAGNOSTIC_DEST 3-14 INSTANCE_TYPE 3-14 LARGE_POOL_SIZE 3-15 iv PROCESSES 3-15 REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE 3-16 SHARED_POOL_SIZE 3-16 About Setting Database Initialization Parameters for Use with Oracle ASM Administration of Oracle ASM Instances 3-17 Using Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 3-18 About Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance 3-19 Connecting To and Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance 3-19 Starting Up an Oracle ASM instance with an Incorrect SPFILE Path 3-21 About Mounting Disk Groups at Startup 3-22 About Restricted Mode 3-22 About Shutting Down an Oracle ASM Instance 3-22 About Administering Oracle ASM Instances with Server Control Utility 3-24 About Out of Place Upgrades 3-24 About Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure with the Configuration Wizard 3-25 About Active Session History Sampling for Oracle ASM 3-25 About Oracle Home User on Windows 3-25 Upgrading and Patching Oracle ASM 3-26 About Oracle ASM Rolling Upgrade 3-26 About Oracle ASM Rolling Patches 3-27 Authentication for Accessing Oracle ASM Instances About Privileges for Oracle ASM 4 3-17 3-28 3-29 Using One Operating System Group for Oracle ASM Users 3-30 Using Separate Operating System Groups for Oracle ASM Users 3-30 The SYSASM Privilege for Administering Oracle ASM 3-31 The SYSDBA Privilege for Managing Oracle ASM Components 3-32 Creating Users with the SYSASM Privilege 3-32 Operating System Authentication for Oracle ASM 3-33 Password File Authentication for Oracle ASM 3-34 Managing a Shared Password File in a Disk Group 3-34 About a Shared Password File in a Disk Group 3-35 Creating a Password File in a Disk Group 3-36 Backing Up and Restoring an Oracle ASM Password File in a Disk Group 3-36 Administering the Oracle ASM Audit Trail 3-37 Migration of a Database to Use Oracle ASM 3-38 About Using Oracle Recovery Manager to Migrate Databases to Oracle ASM 3-39 Best Practices White Papers on Migrating to Oracle ASM 3-39 Administering Oracle ASM Disk Groups Managing Disk Group Attributes 4-2 v About Viewing and Setting Disk Group Attributes 4-2 Summary of Disk Group Attributes 4-2 ACCESS_CONTROL.ENABLED 4-3 ACCESS_CONTROL.UMASK 4-3 AU_SIZE 4-3 CELL.SMART_SCAN_CAPABLE 4-3 CELL.SPARSE_DG 4-4 COMPATIBLE.ASM 4-4 COMPATIBLE.RDBMS 4-4 COMPATIBLE.ADVM 4-4 CONTENT.CHECK 4-4 CONTENT.TYPE 4-5 CONTENT_HARDCHECK.ENABLED 4-6 DISK_REPAIR_TIME 4-6 FAILGROUP_REPAIR_TIME 4-6 IDP.BOUNDARY and IDP.TYPE 4-7 LOGICAL_SECTOR_SIZE 4-7 PHYS_META_REPLICATED 4-7 PREFERRED_READ.ENABLED 4-8 SCRUB_ASYNC_LIMIT 4-8 SECTOR_SIZE 4-9 STORAGE.TYPE 4-9 THIN_PROVISIONED 4-10 VAM_MIGRATION_DONE 4-10 Creating Disk Groups 4-10 Using the CREATE DISKGROUP SQL Statement 4-11 Creating Disk Groups for Data and Fast Recovery Area 4-13 Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation 4-14 Specifying the Logical and Physical Sector Size 4-16 Storing Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Files in Oracle ASM Disk Groups 4-19 Altering Disk Groups 4-20 Managing Oracle ADVM Volumes in a Disk Group 4-21 Adding Disks to a Disk Group 4-23 Using the ALTER DISKGROUP SQL Statement to Add Disks to a Disk Group 4-24 Replacing Disks in Disk Groups 4-25 Renaming Disks in Disk Groups 4-25 Dropping Disks from Disk Groups 4-27 Resizing Disks in Disk Groups 4-28 Undropping Disks in Disk Groups 4-28 Manually Rebalancing Disk Groups 4-29 Tuning Rebalance Operations 4-31 vi Scrubbing Disk Groups 4-33 Oracle ASM Disk Discovery 4-34 How A Disk is Discovered 4-34 Disk Discovery Rules 4-35 Improving Disk Discovery Time 4-36 Managing Capacity in Disk Groups 4-36 Negative Values of USABLE_FILE_MB Oracle ASM Mirroring and Disk Group Redundancy Mirroring, Redundancy, and Failure Group Options 4-39 4-39 4-39 Oracle ASM Failure Groups 4-41 How Oracle ASM Manages Disk Failures 4-42 Guidelines for Using Failure Groups 4-43 Failure Group Frequently Asked Questions 4-43 Oracle ASM Recovery from Read and Write I/O Errors 4-44 Oracle ASM Fast Mirror Resync 4-44 Preferred Read Failure Groups 4-47 Performance and Scalability Considerations for Disk Groups 4-49 Determining the Number of Disk Groups 4-50 Performance Characteristics When Grouping Disks 4-50 Oracle ASM Storage Limits 4-50 Disk Group Compatibility 4-52 Overview of Disk Group Compatibility 4-52 Disk Group Compatibility Attributes 4-53 Setting Disk Group Compatibility Attributes 4-54 Valid Combinations of Compatibility Attribute Settings 4-55 Using CREATE DISKGROUP with Compatibility Attributes 4-56 Using ALTER DISKGROUP with Compatibility Attributes 4-56 Viewing Compatibility Attribute Settings 4-57 Reverting Disk Group Compatibility 4-57 Features Enabled By Disk Group Compatibility Attribute Settings 4-58 Considerations When Setting Disk Group Compatibility 4-61 Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for Disk Groups 4-63 About Oracle ASM File Access Control 4-63 Setting Disk Group Attributes for Oracle ASM File Access Control 4-64 Using SQL Statements to Manage Oracle ASM File Access Control 4-66 Maintaining Disk Groups 4-68 Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups 4-68 Mounting Disk Groups Using the FORCE Option 4-69 Checking the Internal Consistency of Disk Group Metadata 4-70 Dropping Disk Groups 4-70 Renaming Disks Groups 4-72 vii 5 Managing Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups 4-74 About Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups 4-74 About Oracle ASM File Groups 4-76 About Oracle ASM File Group Properties 4-78 About Quota Groups for Oracle ASM File Groups 4-82 About Oracle ASM Extended Disk Groups 4-83 About Point-In-Time Database Cloning With Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups 4-84 Administering Oracle ASM Files, Directories, and Templates What Types of Files Does Oracle ASM Support? 5-1 About Oracle ASM File Names 5-3 Single File Creation Form 5-4 Multiple File Creation Form 5-4 Fully Qualified File Name Form 5-5 Alias Oracle ASM File Name Forms 5-6 Creating a Tablespace in Oracle ASM: Using a Data File with an Alias Name 5-7 Alias Oracle ASM File Name with Template Form 5-8 Incomplete Oracle ASM File Name Form 5-8 Incomplete Oracle ASM File Name with Template Form 5-9 Creating and Referencing Oracle ASM Files in the Database Creating Oracle ASM Files Using a Default File Location for Disk Group Specification 5-9 5-9 Using Oracle ASM File Names in SQL Statements 5-10 Moving Data Files Between Disk Groups With ALTER DATABASE 5-11 Oracle Database File Mapping for Oracle ASM Files 5-12 Enabling File Mapping With Oracle ASM Files 5-13 Using File Mapping Views With Oracle ASM Files 5-13 Using the DBMS_STORAGE_MAP Package With Oracle ASM Files 5-14 Managing Alias Names for Oracle ASM File Names 5-14 Adding an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM File Name 5-15 Renaming an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM File Name 5-15 Dropping an Alias Name for an Oracle ASM File Name 5-15 Dropping Files and Associated Aliases from a Disk Group 5-16 Managing Disk Group Directories 5-16 Creating a Directory 5-17 Renaming a Directory 5-17 Dropping a Directory 5-17 Accessing Oracle ASM Files with the XML DB Virtual Folder Inside /sys/asm 5-18 5-18 Using DBMS_FILE Transfer Utility for Oracle ASM 5-20 Managing Disk Group Templates 5-20 viii 6 7 Template Attributes 5-21 Adding Templates to a Disk Group 5-22 Modifying a Disk Group Template 5-23 Dropping Templates from a Disk Group 5-24 Creating Tablespaces in Oracle ASM: Specifying Attributes with Templates 5-24 Using Views to Display Oracle ASM Information Views Containing Oracle ASM Information 6-1 Viewing Oracle ASM File Access Control Information 6-6 Administering Oracle ASM with Oracle Enterprise Manager Accessing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home Page 7-1 Configuring Oracle ASM Initialization Parameters with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-2 Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-3 Managing Disk Groups with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-4 Creating Disk Groups 7-5 Adding Disks to Disk Groups 7-6 Bringing Disks Online and Offline 7-8 Dropping Disks from Disk Groups 7-9 Dropping Disk Groups 7-11 Monitoring Disk Group Usage 7-12 Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups 7-12 Administering Advanced Disk Group Properties 7-13 Configuring Disk Group Compatibility Attributes 7-13 Configuring Disk Repair Time 7-14 Configuring Smart Scan Compatibility 7-14 Configuring File Access Control 7-14 Specifying a Power Limit For Disk Online 7-14 Replacing An Existing Disk With a New Disk 7-15 Setting and Modifying Content Type for the Disk Group 7-15 Setting and Modifying the Failure Group Repair Time 7-16 Running Rebalance on Multiple Disk Groups 7-16 Viewing Rebalance Process Related Data 7-17 Setting and Modifying the Thin Provisioned Disk Group Attribute 7-17 Running the On Demand Scrubbing Process 7-17 Determining Whether Scrubbing Process Is Running 7-18 Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-18 Managing Directories, Files, and Aliases with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-19 Managing Disk Group Templates with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-19 ix Managing Oracle ASM Filter Driver With Oracle Enterprise Manager Discovering ASM Filter Driver Disks 7-20 Provisioning ASM Filter Driver Disks 7-20 Releasing ASM Filter Driver Disks 7-21 Monitoring Oracle ASM Performance With Oracle Enterprise Manager 8 7-21 Monitoring General Oracle ASM Performance 7-22 Checking Disk Group Integrity 7-22 Backing Up Oracle ASM Files with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-22 Performing Bad Block Recovery with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-23 Migrating to Oracle ASM with Oracle Enterprise Manager 7-24 Monitoring Alerts and Incidents With Oracle ASM Support Workbench 7-25 Monitoring Oracle Flex ASM 7-26 Performing Oracle ASM Data Migration with RMAN Overview of Oracle ASM Data Migration 8-1 Purpose of Oracle ASM Data Migration 8-2 Basic Concepts of Oracle ASM Data Migration 8-2 Basic Steps of Data Migration to Oracle ASM Using RMAN 8-3 Preparing to Migrate the Database to Oracle ASM Using RMAN 8-3 Migrating the Database to Oracle ASM Using RMAN 8-6 Migrating a Database from Oracle ASM to Alternative Storage 8-9 Moving Data Files Between Oracle ASM Disk Groups Using RMAN 9 7-20 8-10 Managing Oracle ASM With ASMCA Getting Started With the ASMCA GUI Tool 9-1 Managing Instances and Disk Groups With ASMCA 9-2 Creating Oracle ASM Instances with ASMCA 9-2 Managing Disk Groups with ASMCA 9-3 ASMCA Command-Line Interface 9-4 Running ASMCA Command-Line 9-4 ASMCA Commands for Instances and Disk Groups 9-5 Configure an Oracle ASM Instance 9-6 Configure Parameters for a Specified Instance 9-7 Delete Oracle ASM Instances 9-8 Create a Disk Group 9-9 Add a Disk to a Disk Group 9-10 Edit Oracle ASM Disk Group Attributes 9-11 Create Oracle ASM Filter Driver Labels 9-11 Drop Oracle ASM Filter Driver Labels 9-12 x 10 Create Oracle ASM File Groups 9-12 Drop Oracle ASM File Groups 9-13 Create Oracle ASM Quota Groups 9-13 Drop Oracle ASM Quota Groups 9-13 Managing Oracle ASM with ASMCMD About ASMCMD 10-1 Types of ASMCMD Commands 10-2 About Oracle ASM Files, File Names, Directories, and Aliases 10-2 System-Generated File Name or Fully Qualified File Name 10-2 Directory 10-3 Alias 10-4 Absolute Path and Relative Path 10-4 Wildcard Characters 10-5 Preparing to Run ASMCMD 10-6 Running ASMCMD in Interactive Mode 10-7 Syntax for Starting ASMCMD 10-8 Running ASMCMD without Any Options 10-9 Specifying the Type of Connection 10-9 Specifying the Verbose Mode 10-9 Including the Current Directory in the ASMCMD Prompt 10-9 Displaying the ASMCMD Version Number 10-10 Running ASMCMD in Noninteractive Mode 10-10 Getting Help 10-11 ASMCMD Instance Management Commands 10-12 dsget 10-13 dsset 10-13 lsct 10-14 lsop 10-15 lspwusr 10-16 orapwusr 10-16 pwcopy 10-17 pwcreate 10-18 pwdelete 10-19 pwget 10-20 pwmove 10-20 pwset 10-21 showclustermode 10-22 showclusterstate 10-22 showpatches 10-23 xi showversion 10-23 shutdown 10-24 spbackup 10-25 spcopy 10-26 spget 10-28 spmove 10-28 spset 10-29 startup 10-30 ASMCMD Member Cluster Management Commands 10-31 chcc 10-31 lscc 10-33 mkcc 10-34 rmcc 10-35 ASMCMD Oracle ASM Filter Driver Management Commands 10-35 afd_configure 10-36 afd_deconfigure 10-37 afd_di 10-38 afd_dsget 10-38 afd_dsset 10-39 afd_filter 10-39 afd_label 10-40 afd_lsdsk 10-41 afd_lslbl 10-41 afd_refresh 10-42 afd_scan 10-42 afd_state 10-43 afd_unlabel 10-44 ASMCMD File Management Commands 10-44 amdu_extract 10-45 cd 10-46 cp 10-46 du 10-48 find 10-49 ls 10-50 lsof 10-52 mkalias 10-53 mkdir 10-53 pwd 10-54 rm 10-54 rmalias 10-56 ASMCMD Disk Group Management Commands 10-56 xii chdg 10-57 chkdg 10-59 dropdg 10-60 iostat 10-60 lsattr 10-62 lsdg 10-64 lsdsk 10-65 lsod 10-67 md_backup 10-68 md_restore 10-70 mkdg 10-72 mount 10-74 offline 10-74 online 10-75 rebal 10-76 remap 10-77 setattr 10-78 stamp 10-79 stamplist 10-80 umount 10-80 ASMCMD File Group Management Commands 10-81 chfg 10-82 chqg 10-83 lsfg 10-84 lsqg 10-84 mkfg 10-85 mkqg 10-87 mvfg 10-87 rmfg 10-88 rmqg 10-88 ASMCMD Template Management Commands 10-89 chtmpl 10-89 lstmpl 10-90 mktmpl 10-91 rmtmpl 10-92 ASMCMD File Access C...
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  • Spring '09
  • Jane Smith
  • Oracle Corporation, Computer file, File manager, General Use, Oracle ACFS

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