{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

soc exam2 - Exam 2 Review Guide Chapter 5 Types of groups...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
 Exam 2 Review Guide                                                                         SOC  Chapter 5: Types of groups -Primary groups consist of intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long- lasting relationships. Ex: family, friends, gang -Secondary groups are larger in membership, less intimate and less long lasting Ex: people in your neighborhood -Reference groups are those to which you may or may not belong but use as a standard for evaluating your values, attitudes, and behavior EX: kid wants to be in the NBA that’s a reference group -In-groups and out-groups -the sense of “us” and “them” -attribution theory: people make inferences about the personalities of others based on whether they are in the in-group or the out-group -a social network is a set of links between individuals or between other social units (organization, nations) Social networks play an important role in providing opportunities Ex: people get jobs via personal networks more often that through formal job listing, want ads, or placement agencies Small world research project -300 “senders” were tasked with getting a document to a complete stranger -1/3 of the documents arrived, with an average of 6.2 contacts Social influence Social influences -The group in which we participate exert tremendous influence on us -even “nonconformists” conform to their in-group (hippies, rockers) Arch conformity experiment -1/3 of the subjects went along with the group at least ½ time; 40% at least some of the time -only ¼ of subjects consistently resisted pressure to conform Milgram obedience studies -65% of subjects administered what they thought was lethal voltage on a shock machine Ex: person continued to shock, but never got up to check on the subject
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
-Milgrim described the dilemma as a conflict between conscience and authority Group think: 4 aspects -illusion of invulnerability -falsely negative impression of those who are antagonists to the group’s plans -discouragement of dissenting opinion -illusion of unanimity Ex: everyone agrees with the subject. Those who disagree do not speak up Risky shift -Groups weigh risk differently than individuals -ex: people in group will take greater risk than if it was individually Most group discussions leads to greater risk-taking as groups get larger; deindividualization is more likely to occur Ex: people are more likely to streak in a group than by themselves Types of organizations Types of organizations -Normative- pursue goals that members consider worthwhile Ex: religious/charitable -Coercive-membership is largely involuntary Ex: prison, mental institutions Utilitarian-members join for specific purposes Ex: Microsoft, organizations purpose of making money Formal organization -a large secondary group, highly organized to accomplish tasks, goals efficiently -develop own culture and routine practice Ex: business dress having casual Fridays Bureaucracies Weber: characteristics of bureaucracy
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}