Development

Development - Development 1. Cell differentiation is a...

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Development 1. Cell differentiation is a process by which a cell becomes specialized to do things a. Cell determination are molecular events leading to cell differentiation b. Stem cells are relatively undifferentiated 2. Morphogenesis is the development of form a. In a pattern formation, cells may communicate by signaling, migrate, undergo changes in shape and undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) 3. Gene expression a. Principle of nuclear equivalence is that there is that usually no genetic changes occur in cell determination and differentiation b. Differential gene expression – various types of differentiated cells express different subsets of their genes 4. Fertilization a. Contact and recognition – between non-cellular egg coverings and sperm b. Sperm entry is regulated – which prevents site-specific fertilization and it also prevents polyspermy (fertilization of egg by more than 1 sperm) c. Fertilization activates the egg and triggers events of early development d. Sperm and egg pronuclei fuse which initiate DNA synthesis 5. Egg coverings a. Echinoderms – vitelline envelope and jelly coat b. Mammals – zona pellucida 6. Acrosome reaction – facilitates penetration of egg coverings when the sperm first contacts the egg a. In mammals, acrosome reaction is preceded by capacitation which is a
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Development - Development 1. Cell differentiation is a...

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