1Outline for Theodore Roosevelt National ParkSpring 2020TRNP History•1864 – General Alfred Sully led a U.S. Army campaign against several bands of Sioux, led by Sitting Bull, Gall, and Inkpaduta. This was the first battle in which these Chiefs had gone up against massed guns and cannons.•1868– Treaty of Fort Laramie granted the Sioux Nation ownership of the Black Hills, in what is now South Dakota.•1874– The Black Hills Expedition led by General George Armstrong Custer was sent to the region to investigate reports of gold. They found small amounts of gold in streams.•1874-1877– Black Hills Gold Rush. President U.S. Grant offers to buy the Black Hills for $6 million, Sitting Bull rejects the offer.•1876 – Battle of Little Big Horn where Custer and the 7thCavalry were defeated.•1877– The Great Sioux War ended with most Native Americans surrendering or fleeing to Canada.•1881– Sitting Bull surrenders after years in exile in Canada.•1890– Sitting Bull is shot and killed by Indian police.•1883 – Theodore Roosevelt first traveled to the Dakota Territories to hunt bison. He purchased the Maltese Cross cattle ranch.•1884– Roosevelt establishes a second cattle operation, the Elkhorn Ranch.•1891 – Sioux lost their land in the Battle of Wounded Knee.•1898 – Roosevelt sells off his last interest in the cattle ranches in the Dakotas.•1900– Roosevelt elected Vice-President on the Republican ticket, with Ohio’s William McKinley.•1901 – Roosevelt becomes President after the assassination of McKinley.•1919– Theodore Roosevelt dies.•1934-1941 – Area of the future Park was the site of Civilian Conservation Corps camps.•1935– Area was designated the Roosevelt Recreation Demonstration Area.•1946 – Area transferred to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service as the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge.•1947– Established as the Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Parkby President Harry S. Truman. It is the only Memorial Park ever established in the United States.
2•1978– The boundaries were adjusted and 29,920 acres of the Theodore Roosevelt Wilderness were established and the park was redesignated as the Theodore Roosevelt National Park.Teddy Roosevelt, a hunter and conservationist.•He was a life-long lover of nature and birds. He was a skilled taxidermist, hunting and preserving thousands of specimens from around the world. His specimens form part of the collections at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. and the American Museum of Natural History in New York (co-founded by his father).•He worked to spread the ideas of Charles Darwin, evolution, and natural selection throughout naturalist and scientific circles.•He helped to establish the Boone & Crockett Club, with George Bird Grinnell (editor of Forest & Stream magazine), the nation’s first fair-hunting organization. He campaigned tirelessly to stop overhunting, illegal hunting, and habitat destruction. He particularly wasconcerned about the loss of North America’s big game animals, such as bison, elk, and grizzly bears.