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Bio 102 Exam 1 Review

Bio 102 Exam 1 Review - 1 Mammals are monophyletic(coming...

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1) Mammals are monophyletic (coming from one common ancestor) 2) Protists are polyphyletic (coming from 2 common ancestry lines) 3) Reptilia are paraphyletic (some reptilia are more closely related to birds and some are more closely related to reptiles) 4) Kingdom Protista a) Amoebas i) Reproduce asexually ii) Move by pseudopodia iii) It engulphs food in order to eat it iv) Some are parasitic b) Foraminiferans i) Marine organisms ii) Produce tests iii) Resemble microscopic snails iv) When they are dead they make up sediment on ocean floor v) Have holes called foreman that allow for structure and so that cytoplasm can go thru the holes vi) The cytoplasm that go thru the holes allow it to move as well as catch food c) Radiolarians i) Shell is glass like, made of silica ii) Axopods function in floating and feeding d) Flagellates i) Use flagellum to move ii) Some are free living and some are symbiotic iii) Many are parasitic iv) Tsetse Fly is the carrier of a parasitic flagellate e) Ciliates i) Move by cilia ii) Complex cell structure iii) Reproduce asexually or by sexual (conjugation) iv) 2 nuclei f) Apicomplexa i) Form spores ii) Multiple hosts iii) Inject into different tissue iv) Has a coil that is used as a spring v) Malaria 5) Protozoans a) Unicellular or simple colonies b) Movement: pseudopodia, cilia, flagellum c) Heterotrophs: ingest food d) Symbiotic (parasitic or mutualism) or free living e) Produce asexually and sexually 6) Kingdom Animalia a) Multicellular b) Mobile (Tunicates are not mobile in adult form)
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No cell walls d) Most produce sexually e) Diploid thru most of life cycle f) Most are invertebrates g) Must eat other organisms for energy h) Evolution of body plan 7) Phylum Porifera a) Subphylum Parazoa i) Sponge (1) Structures (2) Edge of multicellularity (3) They connect protists and other animals (4) Evolutionary dead end (nothing branches off of them) (5) Asymmetrical (6) No body layers (7) Know how they digest (spongal seal) (8) Neither diplo or triploglastic (9) Epidermal and then layer of cells that can move around (collar cells) (10) Collar cells originated from a protozoan (11) Oscicalem (Sp?) (12) Porocyte is the passage way for plankton (13) Spicule – calcium carbonate spines (14) Amoeboid cell in mesohyl – liquid area (15) Collar cells were at one time protozoas b) Subphylum Eumetazoa (truly multicellular animals) i) Cnidaria (hydra, jellyfish, corals) (1) Digestive cavity (gastro-vascular cavity) – only one opening (2) Nematocysts – stinging cells (3) Body plan – diploglastic (2 cell layers) – 1 st is epidermis, 2 nd is mesohyll (fake body layer), 3 rd is gastrodermis (a) Tentacles house cnidocytes (b) Under tentacles is the mouth (4) Different body forms – polym and medusa (5) Life cycle (polyp predominant) (a) Medusae mate planula larvae young polyp colony polyp colony medusae (6) Classes (a) Hydrozoa (i) Polyp predominant (ii) Simple nervous system (iii) Most colonial (b) Scyphozoa (i) True jellyfish
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Bio 102 Exam 1 Review - 1 Mammals are monophyletic(coming...

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