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●Global Storylines ○Transoceanic trade networks create vast wealth and new kinds of inequality○Silver gives Europeans a commodity to exchange with Asians and begins to tilt the balance of wealth and power from Asia toward Europe○New World sugar also accelerates the shift of power in the Atlantic world from the Spanish andPortugese to the British and French○European merchants and African leaders radically increase the volume and violence of the slavetrade, destabilizing African societies○Asian rulers in India, China, and Japan and Russian tsars enlarge their empires ○The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties all struggle to resist European assaults ●Climate Change ○Worldwide trauma brought on by a plunge in temperatures●Mercantilism○Economic theory that drove European empire builders. In this economic system, the world hada fixed amount of wealth, which meant one country’s wealth came at the expense of another’s. Mercantilism assumed that colonies existed for the sole purpose of enriching the country that controlled the colony ●Chartered Companies○Private firms that were awarded monopoly trading rights over vast areas by the European monarchs (for example, the Virginia Company and the Dutch East India Company)●Little Ice Age○A period of global cooling- not a true ice age- that extended roughly from the 16th to the 19th century. The dates, especially for the start of the period, remain the subject of scientific controversy ○Had a devastating impact on populations○Droughts, freezing, and famine spread across Afro-Eurasia, herding societies invaded settled societies. Starving peasants rose up against their lords and leaders. Political divides opened up○In Europe, the Thirty Years War raged out of control- stoked by the anger of farmers who were upset by the lower levels of food production○Tensions rose between Iroquois and Huron in North America○Civil war broke out between Portugal and Spain ○In China, the powerful Ming could not deal with the climate shock- they were invaded and conquered by Manchurian peoples from beyond the Great Wall- they installed a new regime, the Qing dynasty ●Expanding Mainland Colonies○The English used land in the Americas for growing food- in all of England’s north american colonies, population growth fed greater hunger for farmlands, which put pressure on Indian holdings. The result → a souring of relations between Native
Americans and colonists, often ferocious wars between natives and newcomers ○The French- they relied on native American knowhow for trapping beavers for pelts and so they worked with them in a much different manner- their relationship was based on cooperation- in fact, the French gave gifts, participated in Native American diplomatic rituals, and even married into Native American families ●The Plantation Complex in the Caribbean○Large european sugar plantations in the caribbean required slave labor○Sugar was a killing crop → the work was backbreaking and slaves