Chapter45 - Chapter 45 All animals are Heterotrophs and...

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Chapter 45 All animals are Heterotrophs , and must obtain their energy from the food they eat. Nutrients are substances in food that are used as energy sources for the body. Nutrition , is the process of taking in and using food that many environments are centered around. All animals require the same basic things: o Minerals o Vitamins o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Proteins Having a poor diet leads to Malnutrition , or poor nutritional status. 1) Nutritional Styles and Adaptations. i) Feeding is the selection, acquisition, and ingestion of food. ii) Ingestion is the process of taking of food into the digestive cavity. iii) This also includes taking food into the mouth and swallowing. iv) The process of breaking down food is called Digestion . v) Animals must break down the molecules made by other organisms and re- arrange them for their own specific needs. vi) This is done by mechanical and chemical digestion. vii)Amino Acids are broken down from proteins and then pass through the lining of the digestive tract into the body through Absorption . viii) Food that is not used by an animal is discharged from the body. ix) In simple animals this is Egestion , and in more complex animals it is Elimination . b) Animals are adapted to their mode of nutrition. i) Animals are classified as herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores by the types of food that they eat. ii) Herbivores : (1) Feed directly on producers, or plants. (2) Many have a symbiotic relationship with bacteria in their gut that allows them to break down cellulose. (3) The bacteria also produce amino acids. (4) Most of what they eat is not sufficiently digested and is eliminated from the body. (5) Must eat a lot of food to sustain themselves. iii) Carnivores : (1) These are the animals that sometimes eat herbivores and one another. (2) Most are predators adapted for killing and consuming prey. (3) They have shorter digestive tracts because their food is easier to digest than plant matter. iv) Omnivores : (1) They eat both plants and other animals.
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(2) They have adaptations that let them distinguish from a wide variety of smells and foods. v) Animals can be classified also by the way they feed. vi) Many omnivores are Suspension Feeders , animals that expose a sticky surface to the water and remove suspended food particles. vii)Some animals feed on fluids by piercing and sucking on other animals, they are mainly parasites. viii) All animals are adapted for the types of eating that they specialize in. c) Some invertebrates have a digestive cavity with a single opening. i) The simplest form of obtaining food is Phagocytosis , when individual cells take in and digest food in vacuoles. ii) These are sponges and lower levels of life. iii) Most animals have a digestive cavity. iv) A Gastro vascular Cavity is a central digestive cavity with a single opening.
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