soc ch 5.docx - Learning Objectives 5.1 Describe how social...

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Learning Objectives 5.1 Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality. 5.2 Explain six major theories of socialization. 5.3 Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process. 5.4 Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life. 5.5 Characterize the operation of total institutions. Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity Socialization –Lifeline social experience by which individuals develop human potential and learn patterns of their culture •Personality –A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting built through internalization Human Development: Nature and Nurture •Elements of society have a naturalistic root. Nature or nurture? –It is both, but from a sociological perspective, nurture matters more. •S ocial sciences: The role of nurture –Most of who and what we are as a species is learned, or social in nature. –Behaviorism •Human infants display various reflexes—biologically based behavior patterns that enhance survival. –Sucking reflex –Grasping reflex –Moro reflex Social Isolation •Effect on nonhuman primates –Harlow’s experiments ▪Six months of complete isolation caused irreversible emotional and behavioral damage •Effect on children –Anna, Isabelle, and Genie ▪Isolation left children damaged ▪Success after intensive treatment was related to mental functioning and age at rescue Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality •Elements of Personality –Basic human needs: Eros and Thanatos as opposing forces of basic needs •Developing personality –The id : Basic drives –The ego : Efforts to achieve balance
–The superego : Culture within •Evaluate –Presents humans in male terms and devalues women –Theories difficult to test scientifically Freud influenced everyone who later studied human personality Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Studied cognition –How people think and understand •Identified four stages of development 1.Sensorimotor stage: experience only through senses 2.Preoperational stage :

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