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All bio hw - Biology 201 Chapter 1 homework questions KEY 1...

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Biology 201. Chapter 1 homework questions. KEY 1. In your text, evolution is introduced as a central theme of biology, and that evolution explains the unity amid diversity seen in the living world. What is meant by this statement? (1 pt) Species are united through their relationship by common ancestry and contribute to the vast diversity through character modifications from generation to generation. Evolution explains the observed diversity. 2. Look at figure 1.8 and determine which two of the following are more closely related: A gram-Positive bacterium, a member of the genus Methanococcus, and a bird. (1 pt) METHANOCOCCUS & BIRDS SHARE A MORE RECENT COMMON ANCESTOR & ARE THEREFORE MORE CLOSELY RELATED. 3. What are the three domains of life and how are they distinguished? ? (0.5 points each for a total of 1.5 points) Bacteria- (most are) unicellular prokaryotes, cell wall contains peptidoglycan (gram + & –) Archaea-unicellular prokaryotes, cell wall does NOT contain peptidoglycan Eukarya-multicellular, membrane bound nucleus and other eukaryotic cell features (membrane bound organelles) 4. Supposed that you have just developed what might be a valuable new drug for the treatment of high blood pressure. You wish to design an experiment to determine if the drug works. Describe your experiment, and clearly answer the following: (0.5 points each for a total of 2.5 points) a. What is your hypothesis? Administering drug X will lower blood pressure in patients. b. What is/are your control(s)? A GROUP OF PATIENTS, SIMILAR TO THE TREATED GROUP THAT DO NOT RECEIVE THE DRUG OR RECEIVE A PLACEBO Patient population, diet, exercise, amount of drug, etc. c. What results will suggest that you should accept your hypothesis? Over a period of time, following the appropriate controls, patient population blood pressure is reduced. d. What results will suggest that you should reject your hypothesis?
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Over a period of time, following the appropriate controls, patient population blood pressure increases or no change is observed relative to the control group. e. What is the null hypothesis in your experiment? Administering drug X does not impact blood pressure of patients. There will be no difference between the blood pressure in the experimental and control groups. 5. What exactly is meant when we say that a hypothesis can never be proven true, but only at least theoretically disproven? (1 point) There are an infinite number of variables that may result in a hypothesis being supported, controlling for every confounding variable is impossible (there may be an important variable that was not even considered). However, in theory (at least) a hypothesis must be falsifiable. A hypothesis gains support when results compared to a control variable agree with ones prediction.
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