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Response 1 (Grade 2)As it can be derived from "The Secret History of the Mongols" the rule of Mongols is justified by the belief that the nation was established through persistence and ability to sustain hardships, the characteristics Chenggis Khan had. The fact that Temujin has fought with blood for the Mongolian nation makes his family, the authorities and the whole nation respect him. The declaration of war with Khorezm Shaks also shows how Chenggis Khan is willing to protect and avenge his people. This excerpt shows how the nation legitimizes the Khan through trust in him, whereas Khan listens to other people and respects them. Despite the source describing the Khan as someone heavenly dignified, it also shows him as an ordinary human.Juvani's “History of The World Conqueror” justifies Mongol Rule by underlining Chenggis Khan’s individual characteristics “of the real leader”. Also, Juvani compares Chenggis Khan with pharaohs, kings and caesars and demonstrates his leadership as non-tyrant and wise. He justifies Chenggis Khan’s rule by demonstrating his authority when he describes how descendants of Chenggis Khan live in harmony with respect to each other compared to other kings that fall down by trying to conquer each other. Juvani places Chenggis Khan above other people and somehow states that his rule is Heavenly justified.In conclusion, both sources state praise wisdom and strength of Chenggis Khan. However, the most important difference between these two excerpts is in varied aspectsthey take. In "The Secret History of the Mongols", the author represents Chenggis Khanin an interaction with other people and how these people treat him. Juvani's “History of The World Conqueror” mostly focuses on Chenggis Khan’s identity, providing comparisons and demonstrating his intelligence and specific achievements. Moreover, authors differ in their perceptions of Chenggis Khan, whether he is heavenly punishment or a human, destined to rule.
Response 2 (Grade 2)To what extent did the Qazaqs challenge traditional political legitimacy in the 15th-century steppe?The Qazaqs have partially challenged traditional political legitimacy in 15th century by sticking to lateral succession principle. The Qazaq Khanate never implemented an absolute monarchy or a centralized ruling. Despite the genealogy played a significant role in succession, the governing body was never a dynasty, but rather a collective rule within a family. In other words, anyone from the clan could be a ruler, despite the fact this person was not a direct relative of the previous Khan according to the merit-based system. Also, the successor had to negotiate and gain the support of authorities and their families in order to be chosen. This means that the process itself was to some extent democratic.