anand g 2004phxf007p final thesis.pdf - Design and Assessment of Lean Manufacturing Systems THESIS Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

anand g 2004phxf007p final thesis.pdf - Design and...

This preview shows page 1 out of 537 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 537 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Design and Assessment of Lean Manufacturing Systems THESIS Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY by ANAND G. 2004PHXF007P Under the supervision of Prof. Rambabu Kodali BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PILANI (RAJASTHAN), INDIA. 2009 BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PILANI (RAJASTHAN) CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Design and Assessment of Lean Manufacturing Systems”, submitted by Anand G., ID. No. 2004PHXF007P for award of Ph.D. Degree of the Institute embodies original work done by him under my supervision. Signature of the Supervisor Name : RAMBABU KODALI Date: / / 2009 Designation : PROFESSOR i Dedicated to My Beloved Parents Smt. G. Lalitha & Shri. S. Gurumurthy ii Acknowledgements This thesis is, as I see it, is not the end but just the beginning of my research journey. However before continuing the journey further, I would like to thank all those who have supported, guided and taught me how to travel in a safe way and explore things in order to get as much as possible out of the journey. First of all, I would like to thank the Almighty for everything that I am/have today. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Rambabu Kodali, my supervisor, without whom this research could not have been completed. The time he spent for me to complete this research is extremely appreciable and I will always be indebted for his patience, encouragement and useful suggestions. I am immensely thankful to the Vice-Chancellor, Deputy Directors and Deans of Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), Pilani for providing me the opportunity to teach in the Mechanical Engineering Group and simultaneously allowing me to pursue my doctoral studies by providing necessary facilities and financial support. I express my gratitude to Prof. Ravi Prakash, Dean, Research and Consultancy Division (RCD), BITS, Pilani for his constant official support, encouragement and making the organization of my research work through the past few years easy. I thank Dr. Hemanth Jadav, Mr. Dinesh Kumar, Ms. Monica Sharma, Mr. Sharad Shrivastava, Mr. Gunjan Soni, Mr. Amit Kumar and Ms. Sunita Bansal, nucleus members of RCD, BITS, Pilani, for their cooperation and constant guidance during each of the past few semesters. I also express my gratitude to the office staff of RCD, whose secretarial assistance iii helped me in submitting the various evaluation documents in time and give presubmission seminar smoothly. I am thankful to the Doctoral Advisory Committee (DAC) members Dr. Kuldip Singh Sangwan and Dr. Srikanta Routroy who spared their valuable time for reviewing my draft thesis. They critically evaluated my work and provided me with constructive criticisms and valuable suggestions, which have immensely helped in improving the quality of my PhD thesis report. I would also like to thank all my colleagues, in particular, Dr. Rajesh Prasad Mishra, Mr. Rakesh Mote, Mr. Maheshwar Dwivedi, Mr. Kalluri Vinayak, and all others, who kept me sane while I was lost in the world of Kanban, Pokayoke, Jidoka, Muda, Muri, etc. A special thanks to Prof. B. R. Natarajan, Dean, Distance Learning Programmes Division (DLPD) and Prof. K. Venkatasubramanian, Assistant Dean, Distance Learning Programmes Division (DLPD), who always stood by me and supported me, whenever I am in need of any help. Similarly, a special thanks to Dr. Arvind Kumar Sharma, Group Leader, Chemical Engineering Group for motivating me, whenever I am at my low. I am very much grateful to Mr. P. B. Venkataraman, who helped in arranging a visit to M/s. Oswal Valves Limited and M/s. Hitachi Home Solutions Private Limited. I am also thankful to him for all the meaningful discussions regarding LM and also for sharing his practical knowledge and experience. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Vinay Chauhan, Director, Supply Chain, M/s. Hitachi Home Solutions Private Limited and Mr. Ratan, Director, M/s. Oswal Valves Limited for providing me the opportunity to visit their factories. I am thankful to the following students: Mr. D. Satya Sudhir, Mr. Sai Kameswara Rao, Mr. Udaykiran Reddy, Mr. P.R.K. Bharadwaj, Mr. K. Harish Naidu, Mr. D. Hariprasad, Mr. S. Ratna Sandeep, Mr. M. Chandrasekhar, Mr. K. Viswanath, Mr. K. Vivek, Mr. iv Seetharam Polimera, Mr. Manoj Kumar Reddy, Mr. K. Jayakrishna, Ms. Vempaty Athni, Ms. Y.V. Lakshmi Manasa, Ms. P. Sreeja, Ms. Hari Samyuktha, Mr. Swapnil S. Men, Mr. Om Ji Shukla, Mr. Saurabh Tripathi, Mr. Suryaprakash, Mr. Ravi Kiran Kune, Mr. Channawar Ashish Ashok, Mr. Deepak Goyal, Mr. Pritesh Rajore, Mr. Bharat Gulabsingh Chauhan, Mr. Y. Koteswara Rao, Mr. R. Ananthapadmanabhan, Mr. Shishir Goyal, Mr. B. Mahesh, who have worked with me under various project type and professional practice courses. They carried out the jobs assigned to them sincerely. I am grateful to Mr. Bharambe, Mr. Rakesh Pathak, Mr. Hariharan, Mr. M. N. Sridhar and Mr. Vijayaraghavan – the students of DLPD for sharing their valuable knowledge and experience. I am also thankful to them for using their dissertations as case studies. I thank all my friends over here in India and those in the US for their continuous support, encouragement and good wishes. Special thanks to the ‘Abirami Gumbal’ (Anand, Sriram Prakash, Kicha, Prem, ...… to name a few), my school mates (Karthik Kumar, Sagar, Mahesh, Prabhu, Ingersol, Dheena ...… and the list goes on) and ‘BITS gumbal’ (Seshadri, Kavya, Vishwas, Senthil, Aravinth, Srikant Inje, Ashwin, Rajkumar ...… and others) for keeping me motivated. I also express my special gratitude to Dr. Vaigunda Raghavendran who sincerely proof-read my papers with great patience and corrected innumerable grammatical mistakes, which certainly improved the presentation of this thesis. Most importantly, my family deserves credit. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my parents for their unquestioning support. They rejoiced along with me in my successes and consoled me in my frustrations. The support and encouragement I received from them helped me chose the best path to take when the road I took led me in many different directions. Special thanks to my sister Soundarya, as she was always there for me. My heartfelt thanks are due to my wife Sowmiya, whom I have neglected way too much during the course of this research. It was a long and difficult journey and I v could not have completed it without her continual support, understanding, motivation, and love. I do not have words to express my thanks to her for carrying out the mundane activities such as formatting the manuscript, checking the references, proof-reading, etc. I am also grateful for my in-laws and relatives for their understanding and support. Special thanks to Mr. S. Gopalan, his family and friends for motivating me to take up research. There are several people whom I would like to acknowledge. Unfortunately, due to space limitations, I could not mention about everybody. However, I would like to thank each and everyone, who had supported me directly or indirectly in completing this research work. Date: 21 January 2009 (G. Anand) vi Abstract The Lean Manufacturing Systems (LMS) has attracted serious attention among the practitioners and researchers in the recent years. The principles and practices of Lean Manufacturing (LM) were not only implemented in the manufacturing organisations, but also in service organisations. Although numerous articles dealing with the theory and practice of LM have been published, ironically, not many organisations have been successful in implementing the LMS and demonstrate a significant improvement in performance similar to that of Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC). Many researchers have pointed out that one of the reasons for the same is that there is an improper understanding among the practitioners regarding LMS. However, implementing a change management programmes like LMS requires a thorough understanding about the ‘constituents of LMS’, ‘performance measures of LMS’, ‘implementation procedure of LMS’ and ‘assessment of LMS’. In addition, it is also necessary to analyse ‘whether implementation of LMS is justified’. However, it is believed that such fundamental issues are not yet addressed completely in the literature of LM. Hence, there is a need to study the design and assessment of LMS. In this research, a detailed literature review is carried out to understand the current status of LM and to identify the research gaps. To resolve some of the research gaps, comparative analysis of various LM frameworks and frequency analysis of the LM elements is performed based on which a conceptual framework for LMS and an implementation framework for LMS is proposed. The proposed frameworks are validated using a case study. Similarly, a frequency analysis is carried out for to identify the performance measures of LM based on which a new Performance Measurement System (PMS) framework for LMS was proposed by modifying the balanced score card approach. The proposed PMS framework for LMS is validated by comparing the vii identified performance measures with the performance measures identified from the existing case studies that are available in the literature. Subsequently, various multiattribute decision-making models such as analytic network process, preference ranking organisation method for enrichment evaluations and performance value analysis are developed for the justification of LMS for a case organisation, while simulation models are developed for the design of LMS for various case organisations such as a shop floor that manufactures brake linings using a batch production system, a cell that produces spiral and crown wheels (gears) using a mass production system and a factory that fabricates doors and windows using a job shop production system. Later, the graph theoretic model is developed for the assessment of the roles and responsibilities of human resources during the implementation of LMS, while a benchmarking process is developed for the assessment of LMS in a case organisation. Thus, it is believed that these contributions would enable better understanding of LMS by the practitioners and also pave way for many Indian industries to design and assess the principles and practices of LMS and achieve significant competitive advantage over other industries from abroad. viii Table of Contents Certificate i Dedication ii Acknowledgements iii Abstract vii Table of Contents ix List of Tables xvi List of Figures xx 1. Introduction 1-9 1.1 Overview 1 1.2 Need for the Research 4 1.3 Objectives of the Research 6 1.4 Arrangement of the Thesis 7 References 2. Literature Review 10-96 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Taxonomy for the Lean Manufacturing Literature 12 2.2.1 Constituents of lean manufacturing 12 2.2.2 Implementation of lean manufacturing 21 2.2.2.1 Implementation of lean manufacturing in sectors other than manufacturing 21 ix 2.2.2.2 Implementation of lean manufacturing in the manufacturing sector 23 2.2.2.2.1 Implementation of lean manufacturing in new product development 32 2.2.2.2.2 Implementation of lean manufacturing in supply chain 33 2.2.2.2.3 Implementation of lean manufacturing in other business functions 39 2.2.3 Empirical studies in lean manufacturing 41 2.2.4 Analytical tools used in lean manufacturing 41 2.2.4.1 Role of value stream mapping 48 2.2.4.2 Role of simulation 49 2.2.5 Assessment of lean manufacturing 59 2.2.6 Human resources issues in lean manufacturing 63 2.2.7 Other issues in lean manufacturing 64 2.2.8 Integration of lean manufacturing with other philosophies 71 2.3 Research gaps 72 2.4 Conclusions 78 References 3. Development of Frameworks for Lean Manufacturing Systems 97-173 3.1 Introduction 97 3.2 Development of a Conceptual Framework for Lean Manufacturing Systems 98 3.2.1 Frequently asked questions regarding the frameworks 99 3.2.2 Taxonomies for the existing frameworks 100 3.2.3 A comparative analysis of existing lean manufacturing frameworks 105 x 3.2.4 Frequency analysis of the lean manufacturing elements 112 3.2.5 Taxonomies for lean manufacturing elements 128 3.2.6 3.2.5.1 Classification of lean manufacturing elements into principles, practices, tools and techniques 129 3.2.5.2 Classification of lean manufacturing elements according to the competitive priorities 134 3.2.5.3 Classification of lean manufacturing elements according to the stakeholders of the organisation 135 Classification of lean manufacturing elements 3.2.5.4 according to the different functions of operations of an organisation 136 Proposed conceptual framework for lean manufacturing systems 140 3.2.6.1 Logic behind the proposed conceptual framework 146 3.2.6.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Features and issues of the proposed conceptual framework 148 Development of a Implementation Framework for Lean Manufacturing Systems 149 3.3.1 157 Features of the proposed implementation framework Validation of the proposed frameworks 158 3.4.1 Organisation details 159 3.4.2 Problems faced 159 3.4.3 Solutions – Implementation of lean manufacturing 160 Conclusions 166 References 4. Development of a Performance Measurement System for Lean Manufacturing Systems 4.1 Introduction 174 4.2 Development of a Performance Measurement System for Lean Manufacturing Systems 176 174-231 xi 4.2.1 Design of the performance measures for lean manufacturing systems 4.2.1.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 Frequency analysis for design of the performance measures of lean manufacturing systems Implementation of performance measures for lean manufacturing systems 177 178 209 4.2.2.1 Relationship between the performance measures and competitive priorities 217 4.2.2.2 Relationship between performance measures and elements of lean manufacturing 218 4.2.2.3 Relationship between performance measures and business processes 218 4.2.2.4 Proposed performance measurement system framework for lean manufacturing systems 219 Features of the proposed performance 4.2.2.5 measurement system framework for lean manufacturing systems 220 Use and update of the performance measures for lean manufacturing systems 223 Conclusions 225 References 5. Justification of Lean Manufacturing Systems 232-309 5.1 Introduction 232 5.2 An Overview about the Case Organisation 234 5.3 Development of Multi-Attribute Decision Making Models for the Justification of Lean Manufacturing Systems 238 5.3.1 Development of analytic network process for the justification of lean manufacturing systems 240 5.3.1.1 Algorithm 242 5.3.1.2 Results and discussion 265 Development of preference ranking organisation method for 5.3.2 enrichment evaluations for justification of lean manufacturing systems 267 xii 5.3.3 5.4 5.3.2.1 Algorithm 270 5.3.2.2 Results and discussion 284 Development of performance value analysis for justification of lean manufacturing systems 287 5.3.3.1 Algorithm 291 5.3.3.2 Results and discussions 301 Conclusions 303 References 6. 6.1 6.2 Development of Simulation Models for the Design of Lean Manufacturing Systems Introduction 310 6.1.1 Advantages and shortcomings of value stream mapping 311 Development of Simulation Model for the Design of Lean Manufacturing Systems for a Shop Floor that Manufactures Brake Linings using a Batch Production System 316 6.2.1 Manufacturing process of brake linings 316 6.2.2 6.3 310-380 Value stream mapping of the shop floor that manufactures brake linings using a batch production system 317 6.2.3 Simulation model for the current state map 321 6.2.4 Simulation model for the future state map 323 6.2.5 Results and discussions 329 6.2.6 Validation 334 Development of Simulation Model for the Design of Lean Manufacturing Systems for a Cell that Produces Spiral and Crown Wheels (Gears) using a Mass Production System 335 6.3.1 Manufacturing process of crown wheel and pinion 337 6.3.2 Value stream mapping of the cell that produces spiral and crown wheels (gears) using a mass production system 337 6.3.3 Simulation model for the current state map 339 6.3.4 Simulation of the future state map 343 xiii 6.4 6.3.5 Results and discussions 355 6.3.6 Validation 357 Development of Simulation Model for the Design of Lean Manufacturing Systems for a Factory that Fabricates Doors and Windows using a Job Shop Production System 359 6.4.1 Manufacturing process of doors and windows 360 6.4.2 6.5 Value stream mapping of the factory that fabricates doors and windows using a job shop production system 360 6.4.3 Simulation model for the current state map 365 6.4.4 Simulation model for the future state map 367 6.4.5 Results and discussions 374 6.4.6 Validation 376 Conclusions 377 References 7. Assessment of Lean Manufacturing Systems 381-501 7.1 Introduction 381 7.2 Development of a Graph Theoretic Model for the Assessment of Roles and Responsibilities of HR in Implementation of Lean Manufacturing System 382 7.2.1 7.3 Taxonomy for lean manufacturing elements from the perspective of human resources 383 7.2.2 An overview of graph theoretic model 389 7.2.3 A hypothetical case study 390 7.2.4 Algorithm 393 7.2.5 Results and discussion 418 Development of a Benchmarking Process for the Assessment of Lean Manufacturing Systems 422 7.3.1 Development of the benchmarking process 423 xiv 7.3.1.1 Existing classification scheme of benchmarking 426 7.3.1.2 Existing models of benchmarking 432 7.3.1.3 Benchmarking the benchmarking models 434 7.3.1.3.1 Methodology 7.3.2 7.4 436 Application of the benchmarking process for the assessment of lean manufacturing systems 457 7.3.2.1 Case study 460 Assessment of lean manufacturing systems for the 7.3.2.2 case organisation based on the proposed benchmarking process 462 7.3.3 Results and discussion 486 Conclusions 493 References 8. Conclusions 502-509 List of Publications and Presentations 510 Brief Biography of the Candidate 513 Brief Biography of the Supervisor 514 xv List of Tables Table No. Table Caption Page No. 1.1 Results of the internet search (Source: ) 4 2.1 A brief review about the existing LM frameworks 14 2.2 A brief review describing the implementation of LM in various manufacturing industries 25 2.3 Taxonomy for the literature related to LSC 35 2.4 Taxonomy for the papers describing the empirical studies in LM 42 2.5 Taxonomy for the literature related to simulation studies in JIT/LM 51 2.6 Taxonomy for the literature relating HR and LM 65 3.1 List of existing LM frameworks and its associated taxonomies 103 3.2 Comparative analysis of the existing LM frameworks 108 3.3 Frequency analysis of LM elements 115 3.4 List of LM elements considered for the development of the framework 124 3.5 Taxonomies for LM elements 137 3.6 Details of wastes within the machining, fabrication and assembly areas 161 4.1 Frequency analysis for the design of performance measures for LMS 181 4.2 List of performance measures for LMS and its associated taxonomies 203 4.3 Taxonomy for PMS frameworks 210 4.4 Details of performance measures of LMS applicable in small- and medium-sized enterprises 224 5.1 A summary about the case organisation 235 5.2 Differences between AHP and ANP 240 5.3 A summary of the literature regarding the application of ANP in various fields 243 5.4 List of elements considered for the analysis 246 xvi Table No. Table Caption Page No. 5.5 A sample pair-wise comparison matrix of the elements within the cluster PRP (process planning) with respect to the control criterion PRO (productivity) 252 5.6 Pair-wise comparison for the relative importance of the clusters (decision areas) with respect to the control criterion PRO (productivity) 254 5.7 Pair-wise comparison for the relative importance of control criteria (competitive priorities) with respect to the goal 255 5.8 Pair-wise comparison of the elements under the cluster PRP (process planning) with respect to UMS (use of multiple small machines and the control criterion – PRO (productivity) 256 5.9 Weight values obtained for each element from the limiting matrix of the control criterion – PRO (productivity). 260 5.10 A sa...
View Full Document

  • Spring '14
  • lean manufacturing systems

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes